| ॐ नमोऽद्वयवादिने | ஓம்ʼ நமோ(அ)த்³வயவாதி³நே |
अनभिलाप्यम् अभाष्यम् अनुक्तम् अनवघोष्यम्
अव्यपदेश्यम् प्रज्ञप्तिरहितम् तद् हि अद्वयप्रवेशः
அநபி⁴லாப்யம் அபா⁴ஷ்யம் அநுக்தம் அநவகோ⁴ஷ்யம்
அவ்யபதே³ஸ்²யம் ப்ரஜ்ஞப்திரஹிதம் தத்³ ஹி அத்³வயப்ரவேஸ²:
To express nothing, to say nothing, to explain nothing, to announce nothing
To indicate nothing and to designate nothing - this is the entrance into Advaya
In the last lesson, we have seen the basic introduction to Saṃyuktākṣara-s a.k.a Conjuncts. Now, we will get to know more about them in detail.
We'll cover Combining Samyuktasharas & Stacking Samyuktasharas in this part.
As discussed in the previous part, these are formed by fusing the shapes of the consonants.
Usually, the second consonant prominantly changes shapes to completely fuse with the first consonant to generate the Samyuktakshara.
| ॐ नमो दशबलाय । ஓம்ʼ நமோ த³ஸ²ப³லாய |
वर्तितं विरजं चक्रं लोकनाथेन तायिना |
उत्पन्ना रतना त्रीणि लोके परमदुर्लभा ||
வர்திதம்ʼ விரஜம்ʼ சக்ரம்ʼ லோகநாதே²ந தாயிநா
உத்பந்நா ரதநா த்ரீணி லோகே பரமது³ர்லபா⁴
The dust-free (Dharma) Wheel was set rolling by the Lord of the World
And the three jewels, which are exceedingly rare, arose in the world.
People who may have attempted to learn any Indian script other than Tamil, would have surely faced the difficulty of learning the conjunct characters to represent consonantal clusters like /pra/, /ksha/ etc.
These conjunct characters are called Saṃyuktākṣara-s संयुक्ताक्षर ஸம்ʼயுக்தாக்ஷர in Sanskrit.
All the Brahmi-derived scripts' consonants have an inherent 'a' in them. As discussed in previous lessons, a Virama (like that of Tamil /Pulli/) is used to remove the inherent vowel and represent the pure consonants (i.e க क - /ka/ & க் क् -/k/ )
When there is a necessity to represent a cluster of consonant sounds such as /kt/, /ktv/, /kr/, /ky/ and the like, since the times of Brahmi & Kharoshthi, the approach is to also cluster the consonants visually. These clusters are the Samyuktākṣara-s. All Indian Scripts excepting Tamil inherits the legacy of these conjunct characters from Brahmi. Tamil had disregarded the Conjunct formation of Brahmi at the intial stage, when Asokan Brahmi was adapted to write Tamil as Tamil-Brahmi. An explicit pulli was invented to do away will all the complex ligatures.
In Tamil, The Samyuktaksharas are prevented by placing the Pulli explicitly, to form the pure consonant. Any complex clusters, could be easily represented by using the Pulli to denote the pure consonants in the cluster. Consider லக்ஷ்ம்ய as opposed to लक्ष्म्य. But other scripts have complex shapes, forms and rules to produce these Samyuktasharas.
namo tassa bhagavato
arahato saṁmā saṁbuddhassa
Namo Tassa bhagavato Arahato Sammā Saṁbuddhassa (Pali)
Namastasmai Bhagavate'rhate Samyaksaṁbuddhāya (Sanskrit)
Homage to him - The Lord (Bhagavat), the Worthy-one (Arhat), the Fully Ennlightened Buddha (Samyak-Sambuddha)
| ॐ नमः षडभिज्ञाय । ஓம்ʼ நம: ஷட³பி⁴ஜ்ஞாய |
असेवना च बालानं पण्डितानञ्च सेवना | पूजा च पूजनीयानं एतं मङ्गलम् उत्तमं ||
அஸேவநா ச பா³லாநம்ʼ பண்டி³தாநஞ்ச ஸேவநா
பூஜா ச பூஜநீயாநம்ʼ ஏதம்ʼ மங்க³லம் உத்தமம்ʼ
Not associating with fools but associating with the wise
honouring those worthy of honor: this is supremely Auspicious
~ Maha Mangala Sutra (Pali) | மஹாமங்கள சூத்திரம் (பாளி)
Time for another Exotic Summary :-)
In the previous two lessons, we have seen the various Vowel Signs associated with the Vowels. We will be seeing a summary of all those signs in this lesson.
The Dotted Circle that may appear in the below images. It denotes the position of the Consonant with the Vowel sign.
Vowels Signs Summary
| ॐ नमो जिनाय । ஓம்ʼ நமோ ஜிநாய |
अस्तिनास्ति विनिर्मुक्तम् आत्म्यनैरात्म्य वर्जितं
प्रकृत्या जातिनिर्देशं धर्मचक्रम् इहोच्यते
அஸ்திநாஸ்தி விநிர்முக்தம் ஆத்ம்யநைராத்ம்ய வர்ஜிதம்ʼ
ப்ரக்ருʼத்யா ஜாதிநிர்தே³ஸ²ம்ʼ த⁴ர்மசக்ரம் இஹோச்யதே
Free from being and non-being, without Self or non-Self
The Dharma-Wheel is said to be the explanation of Nature and of birth
In the last lesson, we had covered all the Vowel signs, in this lesson we would be seeing the special vowel less forms.
In Lesson 8, I had commented that there are special vowel less forms along with the Virāma based ones. We would be seeing those forms in detail in this lesson. So as such, this would be a very short lesson.
Usually in Grantha, when /t/, /m/ and /n/ appear as pure consonants at the end of words, they take special forms as show below.
t த் त्
n ந் न्
m ம் म्
These are special forms that are more often seen in Grantha.
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