Sanskrit Transliteration Conventions
The Sanskrit consonants CA च (U+091A), CHA छ (U+091B), JA ज (U+091C), JHA झ (U+091D) are transliterated into the Tibetan consonants TSA ཙ (U+0F59), TSHA ཚ (U+0F5A), DZA ཛ (U+0F5B), DZHA ཛྷ (U+0F5C), respectively (according to the Tibetan convention).
Default Transliteration Settings:
- The Sanskrit VA व is transliterated into the Tibetan WA ཝ (U+0F5D). [Although most commonly transliterated into Tibetan BA བ (U+0F56), see below]
- The candrabindu is transliterated into its standard Tibetan equivalent.
हूँ (hūṁ) → ཧཱུྃ [CANDRABINDU] → Tibetan SNA LDAN ྃ (U+0F83)
- The explicit virāma is repesented by being transliterated into its Tibetan equivalent.
पद् (pad) → པད྄ [VIRAMA] → Tibetan HALANT ྄ (U+0F84)
- To use the Tibetan BA བ (U+0F56) to transliterate the Sanskrit VA व . [This is the most common transliteration of the Sanskrit VA व, the resulting Tibetan BA བ becoming indistinguishable from the transliterated Sanskrit BA ब ]
विशुद्धे (viśuddhe) → བིཤུདྡྷེ [instead of ཝིཤུདྡྷེ]
सर्व (sarva) → སརྦ [instead of སརྺ]
However, whenever Sanskrit VA व corresponds to the Tibetan SUBJOINED WA ྭ (U+0FAD), the SUBJOINED BA ྦ (U+0FA6) is never used.
स्वाहा (svāhā) → སྭཱཧཱ [never སྦཱཧཱ]
- To use the stylistic variant of the Tibetan candrabindu. [The Tibetan NYI ZLA NAA DA ྂ (U+0F82) is used instead of the Tibetan SNA LDAN ྃ (U+0F83)]
हूँ (hūṁ) → ཧཱུྂ [instead of ཧཱུྃ]
- To not represent the explicit virāma. [The Tibetan HALANT ྄ (U+0F84) is not used]
पद् (pad) → པད [instead of པད྄]
Miniature Subjoined forms of Consonants wa & ya
Tibetan generally uses special combining forms for the subjoined ya and wa. The other consonants have the miniature versions as their subjoined forms.
སྭ (swa) ཀྱ (kya)
However, (in Tibetan Sanskrit) the consonant ra, when subjoined with ya and wa, generate miniature subjoined forms instead of their special forms. Tibetan Unicode has Fixed Form ra and Ordinary ra to generate sequences like this. However, Various fonts give different rendering for the combination of the above with subjoined miniature wa and ya
ཪྺ (rwa) ཪྻ (rya) (Expected Rendering in Tibeta Machine Uni/MS Himalaya)
So, I have used to Fixed-Form ra for generating the sequences, since MS Himalaya and Tibetan Machine Uni are the commonly used fonts for Tibetan (The former being the default Tibetan font in Windows Vista). For others, they can use the Option in the Toolbar , to switch to ordinara ra.
Doubled ya & wa also use the subjoined miniature forms instead of the special forms.
ཡྻ (yya) ཝྺ (wwa)
Do note that, the “ry” cluster when found as a part of another consonant cluster, they tend to retain their special combining forms.
གྲྱ (grya) ཏྲྱ (trya)
wa ཝ Vs བ ba
Tibetan generally uses བ ba to transliterate the Sanskrit va. However, there seems to be mixed usage of ཝ & བ to transliterate va (even within the same text ! ). I have used ཝ wa to transliterate va by default. However, It can be overridden to བ ba. For the mixed practice, use ba explicitly in the input text, instead of va where བ is to be used, and leave the rest as va.
Be deault space is retained. Select the "Space to Tsheg" - Align and manipulate the spaces between the syllables in the Input text to get the Tsheg correctly according to the Tibetan conventions.
With respect to Sanskrit, and its weird and long conjuncts Microsoft Himalaya (the default Tibetan font for Windows Vista/7) provides decent support with the multiple layer of stacking in all cases.
In especially long and rare conjuncts, Tibetan Machine Uni (& other fonts) fail, where as Microsoft Himalaya renders everything correctly. So, if the text has long complex, and rare conjuncts, it is highly recommended to use Microsoft Himalaya. One Minor Issue, with MS Himalaya is that, it displays explicit compression of characters in the stackings. The other issue with MS Himalaya is the use of Fixed-Form Ra to generate rw conjuct, which is quite non-standard.
Else Tibetan Machini Uni/Jomolhari/Uchen_05 are recommended.
Sample Sanskrit Text
अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।
अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥
यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।
देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥
ཨནིརོདྷམ྄ ཨནུཏྤཱདམ྄ ཨནུཙྪེདམ྄ ཨཤཱཤྭཏམ྄ །
ཨནེཀཱརྠམ྄ ཨནཱནཱརྠམ྄ ཨནཱགམམ྄ ཨནིརྒམམ྄ ༎
ཡཿ པྲཏཱིཏྱསམུཏྤཱདཾ པྲཔཉྩོཔཤམཾ ཤིཝམ྄ །
དེཤཡཱམཱས སཾབུདྡྷསྟཾ ཝནྡེ ཝདཏཱཾ ཝརམ྄ ༎
1.Tibetan for Word – For Windows and the Macintosh http://www.learntibetan.net/download/tib5doc.pdf
2. The Unicode Standard - Chapter 10