Tamil-Brahmi is the earliest script used to write Old Tamil. Tamil language has since then been written in wide range of continuum of scripts. Tamil-Brahmi is in principle an adaptation of the Brahmi script with several additional features being added to cater the idiosyncrasies of the Tamil language.

The earliest inscriptional evidences for Old Tamil occur in Tamil-Brahmi. The conventional consensus for the upper bound dating for Tamil-Brahmi is 3rd Century BCE. Though there have been recent contending evidences for pushing the dates further back as far as 5th Century BCE, they do not have mainstream acceptance. Tamil-Brahmi had been in vogue for several centuries since it adaptation until it morphed itself into the more cursive Vaṭṭeḻuttu around 5th Century CE.

The present Tamil script is not a descendant of Tamil-Brahmi. The precursor to the present Tamil script originated around 7th century CE as a derivative of Pallava Grantha with hybrid elements of Vaṭṭeḻuttu. Vaṭṭeḻuttu itself was in vogue in Tamil Nadu until 11th century CE, until it was completely usurped by the then more prevalent Pallava-derived Tamil script.

The Character set of Tamil-Brahmi is as follows:



The Independant vowel /ai/, /au/ and /o/ have been reconstructed



/ja/, /śa/ are reconstructions



Dependant vowel signs /e/, /au/ are reconstructions.

Features of Tamil-Brahmi

Characteristic Tamil Consonants

Tamil-Brahmi was in most part visually identical with Brahmi with minor differences (such as the shape of /ma/), but suitably adapted to represent Old Tamil. Tamil-Brahmi retained the voiceless unaspirated plosives, but had done away with the other plosives which were voiced, aspirated or both except for /dha/. /dha/ was retained on religious grounds to correctly spell the Jaina Prakrit word dhamma (< dharma). Tamil-Brahmi also used the letters for the fricatives /sa/, /śa/, /ha/ which occur in various inscriptions.

The most important feature of the Tamil-Brahmi script was the presence of the characteristic Tamil consonants – ழ /ḻa/ ள /ḷa/ ற /ṟa/ ன /ṉa/. They were all systematically derived from the other consonants of the nearest phonetic value – /ḻa/ was derived from /ḍa/, /ḷa/ from /la/, /ṟa/ from /ṭa/ and /ṉa/ from /na/.

Vowel Notation System

The other important differentiating feature was the vowel notation systems used to represent the vowel-less consonants. Unlike the Prakrit languages which had no word-final consonants, most of the Tamil words had them. Hence it was necessary to come with a vowel notation system to denote word final consonants and which could also avoid the cumbersome and complex conjunct formations.

As a result Tamil-Brahmi had evolved three different types of notation systems.

Consider the word – ஸாலகன் sālakaṉ



Tamil Brahmi I

ஸாலாகான /sā/lā/kā/ṉa/ 


The consonant didn’t have the inherent /a/. /ā/ vowel sign also denoted /a/. The ambiguity rested in reading the vowel sign either as /a/ or /ā/. The absence of any vowel sign denoted the pure consonant.

Tamil Brahmi II

ஸாலகன /sā/la/ka/ṉa/
The consonant assumed the inherent vowel /a/. However the absence of it was unmarked and had to be deduced through context. Vowel sign /ā/ was unambiguous.

Tamil Brahmi III

ஸாலகன் /sā/la/ka/ṉ/


The absence of inherent vowel was clearly marked using a dot, which later on became the distinguishing character for Tamil (at least theoretically). Once the dot Virāma was developed it went on to be used to represent short /e/ and short /o/.
The converter follows the TB III convention during transliteration.

Variants of Tamil-Brahmi

Tamil-Brahmi has two distinct phases of development:

Early Tamil-Brahmi


This lasted from 3rd Century BCE to 1st Century CE. Two different vowel notational systems TB I and TB II were in use.

Late Tamil-Brahmi


The phase from 2nd Century CE to 4th Century CE is Late Tamil-Brahmi. The shapes of the characters progressively became more cursive giving rise to the early Vaṭṭeḻuttu characters. The systems TB II and TB III were in use.


Apart from the above there are other peculiarities which are discussed in detail in the “Orthography” & “Paleography” chapters by Iravatham Mahadevan in his “Early Tamil Epigraphy”.



For proper display of Tamil-Brahmi, a Unicode Brahmi is required.  Download Adinatha Tamil Brahmi font .

Browser Rendering

Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer (and other windows applications) under Windows 7 SP1 displays Unicode Brahmi text properly. For older versions of Windows, please Update the USP10.dll in Windows/System32 folder to the version: 1.626.7601.17514


Firefox 11 displays the Brahmi Unicode text properly.


Chome does not display Brahmi properly. The combining signs do not fuse with the base consonant, and are displayed as stand-alone. Please switch to Firefox or IE for proper display.

Sample Text

ஆதிநா ளரசர் தங்க ளருங்குல மைந்து மாக்கி
ஓதநீ ருலகின் மிக்க வொழுக்கமுந் தொழிலுந் தோற்றித்
தீதுதீர்ந் திருந்த பெம்மான் திருவடி சாரச் சென்று
நீதி நூற்றுலகம் காத்து நிலந்திரு மலர நின்றார்




Urdu Script is a variant of Perso-Arabic script which is used write the Urdu Language. Urdu being a standard variant of the common Hindustani language, the perso-arabic scritp has been modified by incorporating some generic features of the Indic Scripts as well.
The letters havving  one-to-one correspondance with Devanagari is given below. Apart from the character set below, Urdu also uses various other characters of Persian and Arabic origin for Arabic/Persian loan words.


      aṁ         au         o              ai                 e                  ū      u            ī          i      ā      a


Urdu doesn’t have letters for the Sanskrit ऋ ṛ ॠ ṝ ऌ ḷ ॡ ḹ


                                gh                           g                      kh                          k


                               jh                           j                         ch                        c


                              ḍh                         ḍ                         ṭh                          ṭ


     n                        dh                        d                          th                         t


     m                       bh                        b                         ph                          p


                                     v                       l                  r                               y


                                                          h                     s                                 ś

         r̤h                       r̤                      ġ                     k̲h                                q
                                                                                  z                              f
Urdu doesn’t have letters for  ङ ṅa ञ ña ण ṇa ष ṣa.
Unlike, Indic letters, Urdu letters don’t have an inherent ‘a’ in them.  The ‘a’ must be specifically shown using a vowel marker. See below.

Consonant – Vowel Combinations


        kū             ku                 kī                ki                kā             ka

         kaṁ               kau          ko                   kai                  ke

Features of Urdu Script

Short Vowels

Characterstic of any Perso-Arabic variant Script, Urdu script by default doesn’t show the short vowel markings (a, i, u) , and only long vowels (ā ī ū) are shown explicitly. The presence of a vowel (including ‘a’) and the absence of them as well must be marked explicitly. When any vowel markers are absent, the vowel present on the letter can be assumed to be either a, i, u or the letter can just be a pure consonant. All these must be decided based on the context of the letter in the word. e.g Hindustān is written plainly as ہںدستان (hndstān) without any short Vowel markers. Ideally with the short vowel signs it must be written ہِںدُسْتانْ . However short vowels are usually skipped in Urdu script. The general view is that the Short Vowels are only for the beginners and not the advanced users. 


Shadda  ّ  is mark for gemination in Urdu. The converter by default uses Shadda during Gemination of the Consonants. 


Jazm is analogous to Virama (Halant) of the Indic Scripts. In Urdu, it is considered as a variant of the Arabic Sukun,  which denotes pure consonants. The Jazm has a Caret like shape over the consonants. k क्  Urdu_k. There aren’t many fonts which support Jazm, usually the glyph for the generic Sukun is used instead. 
(For complete notes on Urdu visit Ishida’s page : http://people.w3.org/rishida/scripts/urdu/ )


There are several fonts for Urdu text. The list of fonts can be found here . As commented above, most of the fonts don’t have the glyph for Jazm. There is a customized Urdu version of SIL Arabic font Scheherazade with Glyph for Jazm. Download the font and install it, the display of Jazm is required. The converter has the Scheherazade font as the default font for Urdu. 


Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥


اَنِرودھَمْ اَنُتْپادَمْ اَنُچّھیدَمْ اَشاشْوَتَمْ ۔ 
اَنیکارْتھَمْ اَنانارْتھَمْ اَناگَمَمْ اَنِرْگَمَمْ ۔۔ 
یَح پْرَتِیتْیَسَمُتْپادَں پْرَپَںچوپَشَمَں شِوَمْ ۔ 
دیشَیاماسَ سَںبُدّھَسْتَں وَںدے وَدَتاں وَرَمْ ۔۔ 

Conversion Options


Remove Short Vowels

The short vowel markings are completely removed from the text. There option can be quite useful when translierating Hindi/Punjabi text into Urdu script.

दिल्ली आस पास के कुछ जिलों के साथ भारत का राष्ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र है। इसमें नई दिल्ली सम्मिलित है जो ऐतिहासिक पुरानी दिल्ली के बाद बसा था। यहाँ केन्द्र सरकार की कई प्रशासन संस्थाएँ हैं। औपचारिक रूप से नई दिल्ली भारत की राजधानी है। १४८३ वर्ग किलोमीटर में फैला दिल्ली भारत का तीसरा सबसे बड़ा महानगर है। यहाँ की जनसंख्या लगभग १ करोड ७० लाख है। यहाँ बोली जाने वाली मुख्य भाषायें है: हिन्दी, पंजाबी, उर्दू, और अंग्रेज़ी। दिल्ली का ऐतिहासिक महत्त्व उत्तर भारत में इसके स्थान पर है। इसके दक्षिण पश्चिम में अरावली पहाड़ियां और पूर्व में यमुना नदी है, जिसके किनारे यह बसा है। यह प्राचीन समय में गंगा के मैदान से होकर जानेवाले वाणिज्य पथों के रास्ते में पड़ने वाला मुख्य पड़ाव था। यमुना नदी के किनारे स्थित इस नगर का गौरवशाली पौराणिक इतिहास है। यह भारत का अतिप्राचीन नगर है। इसके इतिहास का प्रारम्भ् सिन्धु घाटी सभ्यता से जुड़ा हुआ है। हरियाणा के आसपास के क्षेत्रों में हुई खुदाई से इस बात के प्रमाण मिले हैं। महाभारत काल में इसका नाम इन्द्रप्रस्थ था। दिल्ली सल्तनत के उत्थान के साथ ही दिल्ली एक प्रमुख राजनैतिक, सास्कृतिक एवं वाणिज्यिक शहर के रूप में उभरी।यहाँ कई प्राचीन एवं मध्यकालीन इमारतों तथा उनके अवशेषों को देखा जा सकता हैं। १६३९ में मुगल बादशाह शाहजहाँ नें दिल्ली में ही एक चहारदीवारी से घिरे शहर का निर्माण करवाया जो १६७९ से १८५७ तक मुगल साम्राज्य की राजधानी रही।

دلّی آس پاس کے کچھ جلوں کے ساتھ بھارت کا راشٹریی راجدھانی کشیتر ہے۔  اسمیں نای دلّی سمّلت ہے جو ایتہاسک پرانی دلّی کے باد بسا تھا۔  یہاں کیںدر سرکار کی کای پرشاسن سںستھااےں ہیں۔  اوپچارک روپ سے نای دلّی بھارت کی راجدھانی ہے۔  ۱۴۸۳ ورگ کلومیٹر میں پھیلا دلّی بھارت کا تیسرا سبسے بڑا مہانگر ہے۔  یہاں کی جنسںکھیا لگبھگ ۱ کروڈ ۷۰ لاکھ ہے۔  یہاں بولی جانے والی مکھی بھاشاییں ہے: ہںدی، پںجابی، اردو، اور اںگریزی۔  دلّی کا ایتہاسک مہتّو اتّر بھارت میں اسکے ستھان پر ہے۔  اسکے دکشن پشچم میں اراولی پہاڑیاں اور پورو میں یمنا ندی ہے، جسکے کنارے یہ بسا ہے۔  یہ پراچین سمی میں گںگا کے میدان سے ہوکر جانیوالے وانجی پتھوں کے راستے میں پڑنے والا مکھی پڑاو تھا۔  یمنا ندی کے کنارے ستھت اس نگر کا گوروشالی پورانک اتہاس ہے۔  یہ بھارت کا اتپراچین نگر ہے۔  اسکے اتہاس کا پرارںبھ سںدھ گھاٹی سبھیتا سے جڑا ہآ ہے۔  ہریانا کے آسپاس کے کشیتروں میں ہای کھداای سے اس بات کے پرمان ملے ہیں۔  مہابھارت کال میں اسکا نام اںدرپرستھ تھا۔  دلّی سلتنت کے اتّھان کے ساتھ ہی دلّی ایک پرمکھ راجنیتک، ساسکرتک ایوں وانجیک شہر کے روپ میں ابھری۔ یہاں کای پراچین ایوں مدھیکالین امارتوں تتھا انکے اوشیشوں کو دیکھا جا سکتا ہیں۔  ۱۶۳۹ میں مگل بادشاہ شاہجہاں نیں دلّی میں ہی ایک چہاردیواری سے گھرے شہر کا نرمان کروایا جو ۱۶۷۹ سے ۱۸۵۷ تک مگل سامراجی کی راجدھانی رہی۔



North Indic Text

North Indic Text – Remove a



Usually, The Modern North Indic languages (Hindi, Marathi, Gujarti, etc)  tend to ignore the ‘a’ that falls in the last syllable and also at various other positions.


When transliterating the North Indic Language text [as opposed to Sanskrit in the North Indic Scripts], this option can be used to remove the ‘a’ in these syllables.


The following conventions are applied when this option is enabled:


  • ‘a’ in removed from the final syllable e.g महायान mahāyān
  • However, for monosyllabic words ‘a’ is retained e.g न – na
  • ‘a’ is removed from the second syllable in a Trisyllabic words that ends with a vowel other than ‘a’.                  e.g सबसे – sabse
  • But ‘a’ is retained if the final syllable is a conjunct e.g वसन्ती – vasantī, तपस्वी – tapasvī
  • As we all as, ‘a’ is retained in the second syllable of a Trisyllabic word if the final syllable ends with ‘a’          e.g  निकल – nikal
  • For words with four syllables ‘a’ is removed from the second syllable,  e.g बातचीत – bātcīt
  • In words with four syllables, the penultimate ‘a’ is removed if the final syllable ends with a vowel other than ‘a’ e.g गुज़रने – guzarne
  • Here too ‘a’ is retained if the second syllable is a conjunct. e.g संप्रदाय – sampradāy


It has to be noted that, in some of these cases ‘a’ is not completely elided, but a very short ‘a’ is retained in pronunication. But for a non-native speaker, it can be approximated as a complete elision of ‘a’. 


Sample Text

बौद्ध धर्म भारत की श्रमण परम्परा से निकला धर्म और दर्शन है । इसके प्रस्थापक महात्मा बुद्ध शाक्यमुनि (गौतम बुद्ध) थे । वे छठवीं से पाँचवीं शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व तक जीवित थे । उनके गुज़रने के अगले पाँच शताब्दियों में, बौद्ध धर्म पूरे भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप में फ़ैला, और अगले दो हज़ार सालों में मध्य, पूर्वी और दक्षिण-पूर्वी जम्बू महाद्वीप में भी फ़ैल गया । आज, बौद्ध धर्म में तीन मुख्य सम्प्रदाय हैं: थेरवाद, महायान और वज्रयान । बौद्ध धर्म को पैंतीस करोड़ से अधिक लोग मानते हैं और यह दुनिया का चौथा सबसे बड़ा धर्म है ।
“बुद्ध” वे कहलाते हैं, जिन्होने सालों के ध्यान के बाद यथार्थता का सत्य भाव पहचाना हो । इस पहचान को बोधि नाम दिया गया है । जो भी “अज्ञानता की नींद” से जागते हैं, वे “बुद्ध” कहलाते हैं । कहा जाता है कि बुद्ध शाक्यमुनि केवल एक बुद्ध हैं – उनके पहले बहुत सारे थे और भविष्य में और होंगे । उनका कहना था कि कोई भी बुद्ध बन सकता है अगर वह उनके “धर्म” के अनुसार एक धार्मिक जीवन जीए और अपनी बुद्धि को शुद्ध करे । बौद्ध धर्म का अन्तिम लक्ष्य है इस दुःख भरी स्थिति का अंत । “मैं केवल एक ही पदार्थ सिखाता हूँ – दुःख और दुःख निरोध” (बुद्ध) । बौद्ध धर्म के अनुयायी आर्य अष्टांग मार्ग के अनुसार जीकर अज्ञानता और दुःख से मुक्ति और निर्वाण पाने की कोशिश करते हैं ।

बौद्ध धर्म भारत की श्रमण परम्परा से निकला धर्म और दर्शन है । इसके प्रस्थापक महात्मा बुद्ध शाक्यमुनि (गौतम बुद्ध) थे । वे छठवीं से पाँचवीं शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व तक जीवित थे । उनके गुज़रने के अगले पाँच शताब्दियों में, बौद्ध धर्म पूरे भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप में फ़ैला, और अगले दो हज़ार सालों में मध्य, पूर्वी और दक्षिण-पूर्वी जम्बू महाद्वीप में भी फ़ैल गया । आज, बौद्ध धर्म में तीन मुख्य सम्प्रदाय हैं: थेरवाद, महायान और वज्रयान । बौद्ध धर्म को पैंतीस करोड़ से अधिक लोग मानते हैं और यह दुनिया का चौथा सबसे बड़ा धर्म है ।


“बुद्ध” वे कहलाते हैं, जिन्होने सालों के ध्यान के बाद यथार्थता का सत्य भाव पहचाना हो । इस पहचान को बोधि नाम दिया गया है । जो भी “अज्ञानता की नींद” से जागते हैं, वे “बुद्ध” कहलाते हैं । कहा जाता है कि बुद्ध शाक्यमुनि केवल एक बुद्ध हैं – उनके पहले बहुत सारे थे और भविष्य में और होंगे । उनका कहना था कि कोई भी बुद्ध बन सकता है अगर वह उनके “धर्म” के अनुसार एक धार्मिक जीवन जीए और अपनी बुद्धि को शुद्ध करे । बौद्ध धर्म का अन्तिम लक्ष्य है इस दुःख भरी स्थिति का अंत । “मैं केवल एक ही पदार्थ सिखाता हूँ – दुःख और दुःख निरोध” (बुद्ध) । बौद्ध धर्म के अनुयायी आर्य अष्टांग मार्ग के अनुसार जीकर अज्ञानता और दुःख से मुक्ति और निर्वाण पाने की कोशिश करते हैं ।



bauddh dharm bhārat kī śramaṇ paramparā se niklā dharm aur darśan hai | iske prasthāpak mahātmā buddh śākyamuni (gautam buddh) the | ve chaṭhvīṁ se pām̐cvīṁ śatābdī īsā pūrv tak jīvit the | unke guzarne ke agle pām̐c śatābdiyoṁ meṁ, bauddh dharm pūre bhārtīy upamahādvīp meṁ failā, aur agle do hazār sāloṁ meṁ madhy, pūrvī aur dakṣiṇ-pūrvī jambū mahādvīp meṁ bhī fail gayā | āj, bauddh dharm meṁ tīn mukhy sampradāy haiṁ: thervād, mahāyān aur vajrayān | bauddh dharm ko paiṁtīs karor̤ se adhik log mānte haiṁ aur yah duniyā kā cauthā sabse bar̤ā dharm hai |


“buddh” ve kahlāte haiṁ, jinhone sāloṁ ke dhyān ke bād yathārthatā kā saty bhāv pahcānā ho | is pahcān ko bodhi nām diyā gayā hai | jo bhī “ajñāntā kī nīṁd” se jāgte haiṁ, ve “buddh” kahlāte haiṁ | kahā jātā hai ki buddh śākyamuni keval ek buddh haiṁ – unke pahle bahut sāre the aur bhaviṣy meṁ aur hoṁge | unkā kahnā thā ki koī bhī buddh ban saktā hai agar vah unke “dharm” ke anusār ek dhārmik jīvan jīe aur apnī buddhi ko śuddh kare | bauddh dharm kā antim lakṣy hai is duḥkh bharī sthiti kā aṁt | “maiṁ keval ek hī padārth sikhātā hūm̐ – duḥkh aur duḥkh nirodh” (buddh) | bauddh dharm ke anuyāyī āry aṣṭāṁg mārg ke anusār jīkar ajñāntā aur duḥkh se mukti aur nirvāṇ pāne kī kośiś karte haiṁ | 



బౌద్ధ్ ధర్మ్ భారత్ కీ శ్రమణ్ పరంపరా సే నిక్లా ధర్మ్ ఔర్ దర్శన్ హై |  ఇస్కే ప్రస్థాపక్ మహాత్మా బుద్ధ్ శాక్యముని (గౌతం బుద్ధ్) థే |  వే ఛఠ్వీం సే పాఁచ్వీం శతాబ్దీ ఈసా పూర్వ్ తక్ జీవిత్ థే |  ఉన్కే గుజర్నే కే అగ్లే పాఁచ్ శతాబ్దియోం మేం, బౌద్ధ్ ధర్మ్ పూరే భార్తీయ్ ఉపమహాద్వీప్ మేం ఫైలా, ఔర్ అగ్లే దో హజార్ సాలోం మేం మధ్య్, పూర్వీ ఔర్ దక్షిణ్-పూర్వీ జంబూ మహాద్వీప్ మేం భీ ఫైల్ గయా |  ఆజ్, బౌద్ధ్ ధర్మ్ మేం తీన్ ముఖ్య్ సంప్రదాయ్ హైం: థేర్వాద్, మహాయాన్ ఔర్ వజ్రయాన్ |  బౌద్ధ్ ధర్మ్ కో పైంతీస్ కరోడ్ సే అధిక్ లోగ్ మాంతే హైం ఔర్ యహ్ దునియా కా చౌథా సబ్సే బడా ధర్మ్ హై | 

“బుద్ధ్” వే కహ్లాతే హైం, జిన్హోనే సాలోం కే ధ్యాన్ కే బాద్ యథార్థతా కా సత్య్ భావ్ పహ్చానా హో |  ఇస్ పహ్చాన్ కో బోధి నాం దియా గయా హై |  జో భీ “అజ్ఞాంతా కీ నీంద్” సే జాగ్తే హైం, వే “బుద్ధ్” కహ్లాతే హైం |  కహా జాతా హై కి బుద్ధ్ శాక్యముని కేవల్ ఏక్ బుద్ధ్ హైం – ఉన్కే పహ్లే బహుత్ సారే థే ఔర్ భవిష్య్ మేం ఔర్ హోంగే |  ఉన్కా కహ్నా థా కి కోఈ భీ బుద్ధ్ బన్ సక్తా హై అగర్ వహ్ ఉన్కే “ధర్మ్” కే అనుసార్ ఏక్ ధార్మిక్ జీవన్ జీఏ ఔర్ అప్నీ బుద్ధి కో శుద్ధ్ కరే |  బౌద్ధ్ ధర్మ్ కా అంతిం లక్ష్య్ హై ఇస్ దుఃఖ్ భరీ స్థితి కా అంత్ |  “మైం కేవల్ ఏక్ హీ పదార్థ్ సిఖాతా హూఁ – దుఃఖ్ ఔర్ దుఃఖ్ నిరోధ్” (బుద్ధ్) |  బౌద్ధ్ ధర్మ్ కే అనుయాయీ ఆర్య్ అష్టాంగ్ మార్గ్ కే అనుసార్ జీకర్ అజ్ఞాంతా ఔర్ దుఃఖ్ సే ముక్తి ఔర్ నిర్వాణ్ పానే కీ కోశిశ్ కర్తే హైం | 



ಬೌದ್ಧ್ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಭಾರತ್ ಕೀ ಶ್ರಮಣ್ ಪರಂಪರಾ ಸೇ ನಿಕ್ಲಾ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಔರ್ ದರ್ಶನ್ ಹೈ |  ಇಸ್ಕೇ ಪ್ರಸ್ಥಾಪಕ್ ಮಹಾತ್ಮಾ ಬುದ್ಧ್ ಶಾಕ್ಯಮುನಿ (ಗೌತಂ ಬುದ್ಧ್) ಥೇ |  ವೇ ಛಠ್ವೀಂ ಸೇ ಪಾಂಚ್ವೀಂ ಶತಾಬ್ದೀ ಈಸಾ ಪೂರ್ವ್ ತಕ್ ಜೀವಿತ್ ಥೇ |  ಉನ್ಕೇ ಗುಜ಼ರ್ನೇ ಕೇ ಅಗ್ಲೇ ಪಾಂಚ್ ಶತಾಬ್ದಿಯೋಂ ಮೇಂ, ಬೌದ್ಧ್ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಪೂರೇ ಭಾರ್ತೀಯ್ ಉಪಮಹಾದ್ವೀಪ್ ಮೇಂ ಫೈ಼ಲಾ, ಔರ್ ಅಗ್ಲೇ ದೋ ಹಜಾ಼ರ್ ಸಾಲೋಂ ಮೇಂ ಮಧ್ಯ್, ಪೂರ್ವೀ ಔರ್ ದಕ್ಷಿಣ್-ಪೂರ್ವೀ ಜಂಬೂ ಮಹಾದ್ವೀಪ್ ಮೇಂ ಭೀ ಫೈ಼ಲ್ ಗಯಾ |  ಆಜ್, ಬೌದ್ಧ್ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಮೇಂ ತೀನ್ ಮುಖ್ಯ್ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ್ ಹೈಂ: ಥೇರ್ವಾದ್, ಮಹಾಯಾನ್ ಔರ್ ವಜ್ರಯಾನ್ |  ಬೌದ್ಧ್ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಕೋ ಪೈಂತೀಸ್ ಕರೋಡ಼್‌ ಸೇ ಅಧಿಕ್ ಲೋಗ್ ಮಾಂತೇ ಹೈಂ ಔರ್ ಯಹ್ ದುನಿಯಾ ಕಾ ಚೌಥಾ ಸಬ್ಸೇ ಬಡಾ಼ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಹೈ | 

“ಬುದ್ಧ್” ವೇ ಕಹ್ಲಾತೇ ಹೈಂ, ಜಿನ್ಹೋನೇ ಸಾಲೋಂ ಕೇ ಧ್ಯಾನ್ ಕೇ ಬಾದ್ ಯಥಾರ್ಥತಾ ಕಾ ಸತ್ಯ್ ಭಾವ್ ಪಹ್ಚಾನಾ ಹೋ |  ಇಸ್ ಪಹ್ಚಾನ್ ಕೋ ಬೋಧಿ ನಾಂ ದಿಯಾ ಗಯಾ ಹೈ |  ಜೋ ಭೀ “ಅಜ್ಞಾಂತಾ ಕೀ ನೀಂದ್” ಸೇ ಜಾಗ್ತೇ ಹೈಂ, ವೇ “ಬುದ್ಧ್” ಕಹ್ಲಾತೇ ಹೈಂ |  ಕಹಾ ಜಾತಾ ಹೈ ಕಿ ಬುದ್ಧ್ ಶಾಕ್ಯಮುನಿ ಕೇವಲ್ ಏಕ್ ಬುದ್ಧ್ ಹೈಂ – ಉನ್ಕೇ ಪಹ್ಲೇ ಬಹುತ್ ಸಾರೇ ಥೇ ಔರ್ ಭವಿಷ್ಯ್ ಮೇಂ ಔರ್ ಹೋಂಗೇ |  ಉನ್ಕಾ ಕಹ್ನಾ ಥಾ ಕಿ ಕೋಈ ಭೀ ಬುದ್ಧ್ ಬನ್ ಸಕ್ತಾ ಹೈ ಅಗರ್ ವಹ್ ಉನ್ಕೇ “ಧರ್ಮ್” ಕೇ ಅನುಸಾರ್ ಏಕ್ ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ್ ಜೀವನ್ ಜೀಏ ಔರ್ ಅಪ್ನೀ ಬುದ್ಧಿ ಕೋ ಶುದ್ಧ್ ಕರೇ |  ಬೌದ್ಧ್ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಕಾ ಅಂತಿಂ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಯ್ ಹೈ ಇಸ್ ದುಃಖ್ ಭರೀ ಸ್ಥಿತಿ ಕಾ ಅಂತ್ |  “ಮೈಂ ಕೇವಲ್ ಏಕ್ ಹೀ ಪದಾರ್ಥ್ ಸಿಖಾತಾ ಹೂಂ – ದುಃಖ್ ಔರ್ ದುಃಖ್ ನಿರೋಧ್” (ಬುದ್ಧ್) |  ಬೌದ್ಧ್ ಧರ್ಮ್ ಕೇ ಅನುಯಾಯೀ ಆರ್ಯ್ ಅಷ್ಟಾಂಗ್ ಮಾರ್ಗ್ ಕೇ ಅನುಸಾರ್ ಜೀಕರ್ ಅಜ್ಞಾಂತಾ ಔರ್ ದುಃಖ್ ಸೇ ಮುಕ್ತಿ ಔರ್ ನಿರ್ವಾಣ್ ಪಾನೇ ಕೀ ಕೋಶಿಶ್ ಕರ್ತೇ ಹೈಂ |   



பௌ³த்³த்⁴ த⁴ர்ம் பா⁴ரத் கீ ஸ்²ரமண் பரம்பரா ஸே நிக்லா த⁴ர்ம் ஔர் த³ர்ஸ²ன் ஹை |  இஸ்கே ப்ரஸ்தா²பக் மஹாத்மா பு³த்³த்⁴ ஸா²க்யமுனி (கௌ³தம் பு³த்³த்⁴) தே² |  வே ச²ட்²வீம்ʼ ஸே பாஞ்ச்வீம்ʼ ஸ²தாப்³தீ³ ஈஸா பூர்வ் தக் ஜீவித் தே² |  உன்கே கு³ஃஜர்னே கே அக்³லே பாஞ்ச் ஸ²தாப்³தி³யோம்ʼ மேம்ʼ, பௌ³த்³த்⁴ த⁴ர்ம் பூரே பா⁴ர்தீய் உபமஹாத்³வீப் மேம்ʼ ஃபைலா, ஔர் அக்³லே தோ³ ஹஃஜார் ஸாலோம்ʼ மேம்ʼ மத்⁴ய், பூர்வீ ஔர் த³க்ஷிண்-பூர்வீ ஜம்பூ³ மஹாத்³வீப் மேம்ʼ பீ⁴ ஃபைல் க³யா |  ஆஜ், பௌ³த்³த்⁴ த⁴ர்ம் மேம்ʼ தீன் முக்²ய் ஸம்ப்ரதா³ய் ஹைம்ʼ: தே²ர்வாத்³, மஹாயான் ஔர் வஜ்ரயான் |  பௌ³த்³த்⁴ த⁴ர்ம் கோ பைந்தீஸ் கரோஃ‌ட்³ ஸே அதி⁴க் லோக்³ மாந்தே ஹைம்ʼ ஔர் யஹ் து³னியா கா சௌதா² ஸப்³ஸே ப³ஃ‌டா³ த⁴ர்ம் ஹை | 

“பு³த்³த்⁴” வே கஹ்லாதே ஹைம்ʼ, ஜின்ஹோனே ஸாலோம்ʼ கே த்⁴யான் கே பா³த்³ யதா²ர்த²தா கா ஸத்ய் பா⁴வ் பஹ்சானா ஹோ |  இஸ் பஹ்சான் கோ போ³தி⁴ நாம் தி³யா க³யா ஹை |  ஜோ பீ⁴ “அஜ்ஞாந்தா கீ நீந்த்³” ஸே ஜாக்³தே ஹைம்ʼ, வே “பு³த்³த்⁴” கஹ்லாதே ஹைம்ʼ |  கஹா ஜாதா ஹை கி பு³த்³த்⁴ ஸா²க்யமுனி கேவல் ஏக் பு³த்³த்⁴ ஹைம்ʼ – உன்கே பஹ்லே ப³ஹுத் ஸாரே தே² ஔர் ப⁴விஷ்ய் மேம்ʼ ஔர் ஹோங்கே³ |  உன்கா கஹ்னா தா² கி கோஈ பீ⁴ பு³த்³த்⁴ ப³ன் ஸக்தா ஹை அக³ர் வஹ் உன்கே “த⁴ர்ம்” கே அனுஸார் ஏக் தா⁴ர்மிக் ஜீவன் ஜீஏ ஔர் அப்னீ பு³த்³தி⁴ கோ ஸு²த்³த்⁴ கரே |  பௌ³த்³த்⁴ த⁴ர்ம் கா அந்திம் லக்ஷ்ய் ஹை இஸ் து³​:க்² ப⁴ரீ ஸ்தி²தி கா அந்த் |  “மைம்ʼ கேவல் ஏக் ஹீ பதா³ர்த்² ஸிகா²தா ஹூம் ̐ – து³​:க்² ஔர் து³​:க்² நிரோத்⁴” (பு³த்³த்⁴) |  பௌ³த்³த்⁴ த⁴ர்ம் கே அனுயாயீ ஆர்ய் அஷ்டாங்க்³ மார்க்³ கே அனுஸார் ஜீகர் அஜ்ஞாந்தா ஔர் து³​:க்² ஸே முக்தி ஔர் நிர்வாண் பானே கீ கோஸி²ஸ்² கர்தே ஹைம்ʼ |   



ബൗദ്ധ് ധർമ് ഭാരത് കീ ശ്രമൺ പരമ്പരാ സേ നിക്ലാ ധർമ് ഔർ ദർശൻ ഹൈ |  ഇസ്കേ പ്രസ്ഥാപക് മഹാത്മാ ബുദ്ധ് ശാക്യമുനി (ഗൗതം ബുദ്ധ്) ഥേ |  വേ ഛഠ്വീം സേ പാഞ്ച്വീം ശതാബ്ദീ ഈസാ പൂർവ് തക് ജീവിത് ഥേ |  ഉൻകേ ഗുജർനേ കേ അഗ്ലേ പാഞ്ച് ശതാബ്ദിയോം മേം, ബൗദ്ധ് ധർമ് പൂരേ ഭാർതീയ് ഉപമഹാദ്വീപ് മേം ഫൈലാ, ഔർ അഗ്ലേ ദോ ഹജാർ സാലോം മേം മധ്യ്, പൂർവീ ഔർ ദക്ഷിൺ-പൂർവീ ജംബൂ മഹാദ്വീപ് മേം ഭീ ഫൈൽ ഗയാ |  ആജ്, ബൗദ്ധ് ധർമ് മേം തീൻ മുഖ്യ് സമ്പ്രദായ് ഹൈം: ഥേർവാദ്, മഹായാൻ ഔർ വജ്രയാൻ |  ബൗദ്ധ് ധർമ് കോ പൈന്തീസ് കരോഡ് സേ അധിക് ലോഗ് മാന്തേ ഹൈം ഔർ യഹ് ദുനിയാ കാ ചൗഥാ സബ്സേ ബഡാ ധർമ് ഹൈ | 

“ബുദ്ധ്” വേ കഹ്ലാതേ ഹൈം, ജിൻഹോനേ സാലോം കേ ധ്യാൻ കേ ബാദ് യഥാർഥതാ കാ സത്യ് ഭാവ് പഹ്ചാനാ ഹോ |  ഇസ് പഹ്ചാൻ കോ ബോധി നാം ദിയാ ഗയാ ഹൈ |  ജോ ഭീ “അജ്ഞാന്താ കീ നീന്ദ്” സേ ജാഗ്തേ ഹൈം, വേ “ബുദ്ധ്” കഹ്ലാതേ ഹൈം |  കഹാ ജാതാ ഹൈ കി ബുദ്ധ് ശാക്യമുനി കേവൽ ഏക് ബുദ്ധ് ഹൈം – ഉൻകേ പഹ്ലേ ബഹുത് സാരേ ഥേ ഔർ ഭവിഷ്യ് മേം ഔർ ഹോംഗേ |  ഉൻകാ കഹ്നാ ഥാ കി കോഈ ഭീ ബുദ്ധ് ബൻ സക്താ ഹൈ അഗർ വഹ് ഉൻകേ “ധർമ്” കേ അനുസാർ ഏക് ധാർമിക് ജീവൻ ജീഏ ഔർ അപ്നീ ബുദ്ധി കോ ശുദ്ധ് കരേ |  ബൗദ്ധ് ധർമ് കാ അന്തിം ലക്ഷ്യ് ഹൈ ഇസ് ദുഃഖ് ഭരീ സ്ഥിതി കാ അന്ത് |  “മൈം കേവൽ ഏക് ഹീ പദാർഥ് സിഖാതാ ഹൂം – ദുഃഖ് ഔർ ദുഃഖ് നിരോധ്” (ബുദ്ധ്) |  ബൗദ്ധ് ധർമ് കേ അനുയായീ ആര്യ് അഷ്ടാംഗ് മാർഗ് കേ അനുസാർ ജീകർ അജ്ഞാന്താ ഔർ ദുഃഖ് സേ മുക്തി ഔർ നിർവാൺ പാനേ കീ കോശിശ് കർതേ ഹൈം |  

Aksharmukha API


To access the API of the converter, send the request to the following URL.




Either Get or Post request can be made to this URL. The response would be in XML.



Three Parameters are essential:


src – Source Script

tgt – Target Script

text – Text that is to be converted


The details of optional Parameters can be found here .


XML Structure


The API Request,




will return the following as the response


<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″ ?>


    <source script=”iast“>buddha</source>

    <target script=”gujarati“>બુદ્ધ</target>




Character Matrix




Malayalam_new-I is a new character introduced after script reformation in 1970’s. The Traditional Charactar for long /i/ as derived from Grantha is Malayalam_old-I .


ऎ ऒ ऩ ऴ ऱ These are all new modern characters proposed in ISCII to faciliate Transliteration of South Indian scripts into Devanagari. 


Bengali lacks the letter for /va/. Assamese ৱ has been used to represent /va/. Also, the equivlent letter for the Tamil/Malayalam ழ has been created by placing the nukta on /sha/ ষ


Oriya doesn’t have /va/ like Bengali. However modern Oriya uses  to denote the /w/ sound. It has been used as an equivalent for /va/. 


Sinhala traditionally uses the short vowel /e/ and /o/ to denote long /e/ and /o/ in Sanskrit/Pali texts. The long vowels are used only in Sinhala text.


Tamil publishers generally use a system of superscript/subscript numerals to denote the Sanskrit Varga consonants which the Tamil-Script lacks. The same is used here. Just the characters for R, RR, L, LL, Anusvara & Chandrabindu.


Grantha traditionally lacks a Nukta.  It is proposed as a new addendum to the Script.


It is a hybrid between Tamil-Grantha script used by some publishers in Tamil Nadu to print Sanskrit texts.


Telugu Letter ఁ though named as Chandrabindu in Unicode, is not the real Chandrabindu. It is called Arasunna, and is a prosodical character. There are some modern texs use this character as the equivalent of Chandrabindu when writing Hindi in Telugu Script. I have for now used this character as the equivalent for Chandrabindu. There real Chandrabindu is in pipeline for inclusion in Unicode (along with Malayalam and Kannada Chandrabindu-s )


The symbol for Visarga as mutated to a vowel sign for short a (Sara a). I have just shown the Visarga using a colon (:)


Quick Guide

How to use the Converter

This is so simple :-). Enter the text in the upper text box, and then select the Source and Destination scripts. To override the default conversion settings, select the appropriate check boxes. The Check-boxes can be activated by clicking on the respective buttons.


Default Conversion

The Converter automatically applies [if necessary] certain nativization conventions that is usually applied in the Target script, to make the text more nativized in the Target script.  This is in line with the script conventions for the Target script. For the nativization conventions for each script , refer the script specific help page.


General Options


Preserve Source

Since, the Target text is processed for nativization convention, its not possible to accurately reverse transliterate the nativized text to get the original source.  This option facilitates lossless reverse transliteration by preserving the Source text. This enables the use of various diacritics [such as caret (^), apostrophe (‘) ]  to preserve the source.


Remove Diacritics

This option removes the various diacritics characters from the Target text. This includes superscript/subscript numerals, and other diacritics used in the Indic Script text. Do note that it doesn’t affect the Nukta based extended letters.


For Script specific options, check out the pages in the side bar. 




Devanagari Page
@ Omniglot

Devanagari Orthography
@ World’s Wrting System

Devanagari Script
@ Wikipedia

Devanagari is the “official” Script for Sanskrit these days. But Sanskrit per-se never had any official script. It was written with the local script of that region. But since the 19th century Devanagari has been projected as the sole script for Sanskrit. People seem to associate Sanskrit only with Devanagari, which is quite historically incorrect. Sanskrit was written with a variety of scripts in the Past, and also in the present. Devangari is one of the Major scripts used for writing in Sanskrit, and certainly not the only script !


Features of Devanagari Script

ISCII Extended Devanagari

Traditional Devanagari lacked characters for the South Indian Characters and stuff. When ISCII was proposed, Devanagari was extended and new characters were added so as to enable it to represent any Indian Language. Two new short vowels were Introduced for short /e/ and short /o/, by modifying the shapes of the existing long vowels.Characters for /LLLA/, /RRA/. /NNNA/, /YYA/ were also formed by extending the script using Nukta.

<short e> ऒ <short o> ऩ<NNNA> ऱ<RRA> ऴ <LLLA>

Marathi Eyelash Ra

Marathi use a  specific form of the Repha called “Eyelash Ra”. In Unicode it is usually respresented as <RA> + <VIRAMA> + <ZWJ> . But due to compatibility with the ISCII standard, Unicode also represents Eyelash ra as the half-form of the dravidian RRA. (Compatibility with Legacy encodings is something which I don’t like :-/ about Unicode )


Hence in Transliterated Devanagari text, the appearance of Eye Lash ra represents the half-RRA.


గుఱ్ఱము guṟṟamu – गुऱ्ऱमु

விற்க viṟka – विऱ्क

Web Transliteration

Using Aksharamukha Convertor, you can also Transliterate webpages from Indic Scripts to other scripts. Just insert a website address in the Website Input box, and then click on Convert.


The Convertor scrapes the HTML page, then transliterates the Indic Scripts and displays the HTML. The Transliterated webpage may not preserve the site layout exactly as such, there may be issues from slight misalignment of pages, and missing images to total loss of formatting.  

Grantha & Tamil-Grantha

If you are converting the Target site to Grantha/Tamil-Grantha, make sure you set the fonts correctly. For viewing pages with Grantha, the Bengali font must be set as e-Grantha OT or e-Grantamil. For Tamil-Grantha, both Tamil & Grantha fonts in the browser must be set to e-Grantamil.


Converting Sites using URL

If you are one a site, and u want to convert the script, follow the below syntax:


Prefix: http://www.virtualvinodh.com/aksharamukha/aksharamukha-web.php?website= 


And add &Src=SourceScript&Target=TargeScript at the end.


For example, if you are viewing the following page, 




If you want to convert the script in the site,  Go the address page and change the URL as follows:




Bookmarking to Toolbar/Favorites

Click and drag the following link to your links toolbar or Favourites :: Aksharmukha Web ::

Whenever, you need to transliterate a given page, click the link to convert the website.


There are some issues following the hyperlinks in the converted page, and transliterating them too. I will fix this soon.




Thai Page @

Thai Orthography @
World’s Writing System

Thai Script @


Apart from Burmese & Sinhalese, Thai is a principal script used to record the Pali Tripitaka. Contrary to Khmer & Buremse which stayed faithful to the original Indic consonants, Thai has expanded its consonats to include many other consonants to render the native sounds. As in the case of Khmer/Buemse, Thai has also developed many more signs for Vowel sounds and Tones. 


Characteristic of the East Asian Brahmic Scripts, the pronunciation of the letters have been completely nativized.


When writing Sanskrit/Pali the following Characters are used:



a          ā        i        ī       u     ū      ṛ        ṝ           ḷ       ḹ          e         ai          o        au     aṁ     aḥ



The Visarga in Thai has got transformed to the vowel sign for ‘a’ ะ. I have used a colon to denote the true Visarga 



  ka          kha       ga       gha        ṅa


   ca      cha       ja        jha          ña


   ṭa       ṭha     ḍa        ḍha        ṇa


  ta         tha       da        dha      na


  pa         pha      ba       bha       ma


  ya        ra      la        va


  śa         ṣa        sa       ha         ḽa(ळ)



Thai ṭa

Cambridge Library reference cites  U+0E0E as equivalent to ṭa. There are quite some sources in the internet which do use this ฎ. However, on researching the printed Thai Script editions of the Tripitaka (see: http://hall.worldtipitaka.org/node/240199 U+0E0F seems to be the character which is used in the various Thai Tripitaka Editions for ṭa.

Consonant-Vowel Combinations

   ka         kā             ki         kī          ku        kū             kṛ                    kṝ 



    kḷ                  kḹ                 ke           kai             ko            kau           kaṁ     kaḥ



Thai also has lost the vowel signs for the Vocalic Letters. I have represented them as a combination of Virama and the Independent Vowel, which is valid Grammatically. [Actually, Say कृ is just a orthographic convention for क्‌ऋ. The Vowel signs are nothing but allographs of the Vowel]

Thai vowel sign /i/ forms a ligature with the Anusvara. It has been encoded as ึ U+0E36. 


Thai Virama (Phinthu < Skt. Bindu [Dot] )

Thai Script does not have complex Conjuncts. Similar to the Tamil Scrpt, it uses a visible Virama to display consonant clusters.


Thai Conjuncts

The Thai Script has a peculiar way for representing certain Conjuncts wih the vowel signs that are placed before the Consonants i.e /e/, /o/ /au/ /ai/.  For some clusters these vowels signs are placed before the consonantal clusters themselve. For eample, /dve/ is written as เทฺว as opposed to the usual ทฺเว. (i.e) In Essence – ทฺว is considered as a digraph, and treated as such with the vowel signs, thus the cluster is not split.


This digraph convention is followed for:


  • Any Consonantal cluster that is word-initial.
  • Conjuncts with the semi-vowels ( /ya/, /va/, /ra/, /la/   ) in post-consonantal positions (like /kye/, /dve/, /tro/ )
  • Conjuncts of h in both post-consonantal (like /mhe/ ) and pre-consonantal (like /hmo/ ) positions.
  • Conjuncts of s in pre-consonantal postions (like /ste/ )


(See: http://www.thai-language.com/forums/t/linguistics/writing/t5913 )


Thai Transcription


In Thai (Similar to that of Bengali & Oriya), the inherent vowel in the letters has shifted from ‘a’ to ‘o’. Therefore Thai developed a special sign to denoted this short ‘a’ ะ U+0E30 (derived from the historic Visarga). When short ‘a’ appears before doubled Consonants & the nasalized Anusavara ั U+0E31 is used. Also, Anusvara is replaced by the Nasal ṅ ง

While writing Pali Proper, the inherent vowel is assumed to be ‘a’. But in various pali chanting books printed in Thai Script, this short-a is shown explicitly for ease of pronunciation and the Anusvara replaced by the Nasal sound.  


namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa 

นโม ตสฺส ภควโต อรหโต สมฺมาสมฺพุทฺธสฺส  (Thai Transliteration) 

นะโม ตัสสะ ภะคะวะโต อะระหะโต สัมมาสัมพุทธัสสะ (Thai Transcription)


buddhaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi  

พุทฺธํ สรณํ คจฺฉามิ (Thai Transliteration)

พุทธัง สะระณัง คัจฉามิ (Thai Transcription)


Select “Transcribe into Thai” to enable Transcription of the source Text into Thai Script.


Transliteration from Thai Transcription


When Transliterating from a Thai Transcribed text in Source,select “Transcribed Thai” option


กาเยนะ วาจายะ วะ เจตะสา วา

ธัมเม กุกัมมัง ปะกะตัง มะยา ยัง

ธัมเม ปะฏิคคัณหะตุ อัจจะ ยันตัง

กาลันตะเร สังวะริตุง วะ ธัมเม 


kāyena vācāya va cetasā vā

dhamme kukammaṅ pakataṅ mayā yaṅ

dhamme paṭiggaṇhatu acca yantaṅ

kālantare saṅvarituṅ va dhamme   


(Note that Anusvara is replaced by the Nasal ṅ)


Thai Fonts

Windows comes with several fonts for Thai. Hence the Display of Thai Script isn’t much of an Issue.


Thai Unicode

Thai (and Lao) do not follow the logical arrangement of the Vowel Signs. They follow the visual model. That is, the Vowel Sign ‘e’ encoded before the consonant. But in other Script, it follows the consonant i.e the placement of vowel sign is left to the font rendering. This discrepancy is due to the fact that Thai Unicode is based on the Legacy Thai National Standard.


Sample Sanskrit Text 

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥



อนิโรธมฺ อนุตฺปาทมฺ อนุจฺเฉทมฺ อศาศฺวตมฺ ฯ  

อเนการฺถมฺ อนานารฺถมฺ อนาคมมฺ อนิรฺคมมฺ ๚  

ย: ปฺรตีตฺยสมุตฺปาทํ ปฺรปญฺโจปศมํ ศิวมฺ ฯ  

เทศยามาส สํพุทฺธสฺตํ วนฺเท วทตำ วรมฺ ๚   



อะนิโรธะม อะนุตปาทะม อะนุจเฉทะม อะศาศวะตะม ฯ 

อะเนการถะม อะนานารถะม อะนาคะมะม อะนิรคะมะม ๚ 

ยะ: ประตีตยะสะมุตปาทัง ประปัญโจปะศะมัง ศิวะม ฯ 

เทศะยามาสะ สังพุทธัสตัง วันเท วะทะตาง วะระม ๚

Further Reading

1. Pali in Thai Script – http://paliinthaiscript.blogspot.com/ (Pali Transcribed in Thai – not Transliterated)

2. http://watbowon.com/schedual/bun/bun5.html – Pali in Thai Script with some admixture of Native Thai Elements

3. Pali Tripitaka in Thai Script – http://www.tipitaka.org/thai/ – Uses the alternate ฎ. Also has some issues with vowel sign placement.



Saurahstra is a minority Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Southern part of India, mostly in the state of Tamil Nadu. The Ancestors of the modern Saurashtra speaking people, are believed to have migrated from Saurashtra region of the Gujarat and settled over in Tamil Nadu and the surrounding areas.


Saurashtra for most of the part had been an oral language lacking any script of its own, around the 17th – 18th century some attempted to write it in Telugu script. Around 19th Century a script was invented. Lots of books were printed in this script, but it never really picked up.  Attempted were made to revitalize the script in later half of the 19th Century, ignoring most of the complex conjunct characters. But still, the script is mostly unknown even to the native Saurashtrans. 


Features of Saurashtra Script

Saurashtra Sign Haaru

Saurashtra has letters for additional aspirated sounds – lha, rha, nha & mha. This additional aspiration is indicated by placing a sign called “haaru” next to the Consonants la, ra, na & ma to produce a digraph.  


Haddu Yakara

Haddu Yakara is a special conjunct sign to denote the geminated /y/ sound . It is a remnant of the old script, being a double conjunct conjunct of /y/. It is placed before the consonant.



Saurashtra syllable /vyya/

Saurashtra Font

Saurashtra Script has been added into the Unicode Standard recently.  There is only one standard Unicode font available for Saurashtra – Sourashtra. The font must be installed to view Unicode Saurashtra text. The Modern simplified Saurashtra only supports conjuncts Ksha & Haddu Yakara.


Issues in Unicode Saurashtra display

Except firefox, other browsers (Chrome & IE) do not display the Saurashtra conjuncts (in Sourashtra font) properly. However, Word processors AFAIK do not have any issues.


Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।     

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥     

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।     

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥  


ꢂꢥꢶꢬꣂꢤꢪ꣄ ꢂꢥꢸꢡ꣄ꢦꢵꢣꢪ꣄ ꢂꢥꢸꢗ꣄ꢘꢿꢣꢪ꣄ ꢂꢯꢵꢯ꣄ꢮꢡꢪ꣄ |    

ꢂꢥꢿꢒꢵꢬ꣄ꢢꢪ꣄ ꢂꢥꢵꢥꢵꢬ꣄ꢢꢪ꣄ ꢂꢥꢵꢔꢪꢪ꣄ ꢂꢥꢶꢬ꣄ꢔꢪꢪ꣄ ||     

ꢫꢁ ꢦ꣄ꢬꢡꢷꢡ꣄ꢫꢱꢪꢸꢡ꣄ꢦꢵꢣꢀ ꢦ꣄ꢬꢦꢛ꣄ꢗꣂꢦꢯꢪꢀ ꢯꢶꢮꢪ꣄ |     

ꢣꢿꢯꢫꢵꢪꢵꢱ ꢱꢀꢨꢸꢣ꣄ꢤꢱ꣄ꢡꢀ ꢮꢥ꣄ꢣꢿ ꢮꢣꢡꢵꢀ ꢮꢬꢪ꣄ ||


Other Options

Use Haaru


The converter by default doesn’t display the “haaru” sign. The nha, rha, lha,  mha are converted as ꢥ꣄ꢲ, ꢬ꣄ꢲ, ꢭ꣄ꢲ,  ꢪ꣄ꢲ (with ꢲ). To enable the usage of Haaru, select this option. With this option enabled  ꢥꢴ, ꢬꢴ, ꢭꢴ,  ꢪꢴ is displayed instead with Haaru.