aksharamukha-grantha

Grantha

aksharamukha-grantha

Grantha Page @
Omniglot
 

Grantha Orthography @
Ancient Scripts

Grantha Script @
Wikipedia

Grantha Script is an ancient traditional script used to write Sanskrit . Grantha was used extensively in South India to write Sanskrit even as early as the 1900’s. However, due to the emergence of Devanagari as the common script for Sanskrit in India, Grantha lost its dominance. Its current usage is mainly restricted to Vedic Pathashalas and perhaps Manuscript libraries. It has no official encoding as of now. However, off late there have been proposals for encoding Grantha Script into Unicode, which might actually help in the revival of the script.

 

Grantha Font

Indolipi : e-Grantamil

As Grantha is not encoded in Unicode, one of the temporary solutions is to use a package called Indolipi, created by “Elmar Kniprath”. The Indolipi package contains a Open Type Unicode font for Grantha. However, Grantha is hack-encoded into the Bengali code point range. So, in the absence of the specific Grantha font, the Grantha Text could appear as Bengali Text. However, the Mapping is not one to one. There are a few variations. For example. the Grantha Retroflex La (ळ) is mapped to Assamese ra [Bengali letter ra with diagonal]. The Converter uses this custom encoding for the Grantha Script.  Please use the updated e-Grantamil font for viewing Grantha Texts. The new version of e-Grantamil font has new characters such as “Grantha Nukta”, and some characters have been remapped. The text created with the new version of the font, is incompatible with the old version.

 

Display Issues in Windows 7

Windows 7 does not render all the Script blocks present in the Same font. The other blocks in the font, get a fallback rendering.This is due to a bug in the Windows 7 Unicode rendering. Since e-Grantamil has both Tamil & Grantha blocks, Grantha text may not be rendered properly, to overcome this switch to the Grantha-only font e-Grantha OT of the Indolipi package.

 

Uniscribe Issues

The Indolipi Grantha fonts have issues with severals versions of the Uniscribe, which affects the rendering of conjunct characters (especially with vowel sign i and ii). If some conjuncts are not displayed properly a, it is probably due to incompatibility with the Uniscribe Engine.  If you face any Uniscribe related issues, please update to the latest version of e-Grantamil font.

 

Other Fonts

There are several other Truetype fonts that exist for Grantha Script.

 

See: http://www.virtualvinodh.com/grantha-lipitva/203-grantha-17-fonts-softwares

 

Features of Grantha Script

Grantha Nukta

Grantha has been originally restricted to write Sanskrit only. However, with the changing of Times, there is need to write non-Sanskrit letters also in Grantha. Hence, a nukta has been proposed on par with the other Indic Scripts. This creates the ability to extend the Grantha script to represent foreign sounds. As a native user of Grantha, I feel it is great for an archaic script to update itself to represent modern sounds. The proposed arbitrary shape for Grantha Nukta is similar in shape to the Kannada Nukta

 

grantha_nukta_consonants

Extended Grantha Consonants for q, f & w by extending k,ph,v respectively

 

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

অনিরোধম্ অনুত্পাদম্ অনুচ্ছেদম্ অশাশ্ৱতম্ |  

অনেকার্থম্ অনানার্থম্ অনাগমম্ অনির্গমম্ ||    

যঃ প্রতীত্যসমুত্পাদং প্রপঞ্চোপশমং শিৱম্ |  

দেশযামাস সংবুদ্ধস্তং ৱন্দে ৱদতাং ৱরম্ ||

(In the Absense of e-Grantamil font, the above text will be rendered as plain Bengali text)
tamil-grantha-typeset

Tamil-Grantha

Tamil Script is a deficient script, lacking  aspirated and voiced characters along with the Anusvara & Visarga. Many methods have been devised to fill the gaps in the Script. One method is is to use Superscript (or Subscript) numerals to differentiate the Varga Letters. See Tamil Section

 

The other less popular method is to use the Grantha Letters. The present Tamil Orthography has already absorbed and completely nativized 5 Grantha Letters, which are de-facto part of the Orthography. However, the General public do not make any distinction between the Tamilized Grantha Letters and Tamil Letters per se.

 

Grantha Script is a complex script making extensive use of conjuncts. Hence, efforts were made to reduce the difficulty in reading Sanskrit, by filling up the holes in the Tamil Script with the Grantha Consonants. There result was a hybrid between the Tamil & Grantha Orthographies.

 

One of the Earliest efforts of such a Hybrid Tamil-Grantha script dates back to the 1900’s where a complete book was published using the Tamil-Grantha Hybrid Script. Infact, the Tamil-Grantha hybrid script is ideal for a beginner to learn and read Sanskrit Text properly. Once familiar with this, it would easy to learn the full Grantha Script.

 

Below, is a direct sample for a book called “Bhoja Charitram” published in 1916, along side with typeset version of the same passage with e-Grantamil font .

 

 tamil-grantha-typeset

 

A commentary on the Jaina Epic Nilakesi published in 1936 also uses this technique now and then. ( See MinTamil Google Group)

 

There also been other recent publications which use Tamil-Grantha hybrid for printing Sanskrit.

 

Tamil-Grantha Character Set

Vowels

Tamil-Grantha_Vowels

 

Consonants

Tamil-Grantha_Consonants

 

Consonant-Vowel Combinations

Tamil Letter “ka” taking all the vowel signs.

 

Tamil-Grantha_Consonant-Vowel-ka2

 

Grantha Letter “gha” taking all the vowel signs.

 

Tamil-Grantha_Consonant-Vowel-gha

 

Those in Red, denote the hybrid charset. Except for Ksha & Shrii, Tamil-Grantha does not use any other Conjuncts. The Explicit Tamil Virama “Pulli” is used instead.

 

Display Issues in Windows 7

Windows 7 does not render all the Script blocks present in the Same font. It displays only a single block correctly, the other blocks in the font, get a fallback rendering. Since, Tamil-Grantha Hybrid used codepoints for Bengali & Tamil from the same font (e-Grantamil), this resultant text will not get rendered properly in Windows 7. This is due to a bug in the Windows 7 Unicode rendering. (See: Unicode Mailing List : http://www.unicode.org/mail-arch/unicode-ml/y2010-m03/0004.html ) 


Tamil-Grantha_2_Shakyasima_Incorrect


Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

அநிரோধம் அநுத்பாদம் அநுச்‌‍‌ேছদம் அশாশ்வதம் |  

அநேகார்থம் அநாநார்থம் அநாগமம் அநிர்গமம் ||  

யঃ ப்ரதீத்யஸமுத்பாদং ப்ரபஞ்சோபশமং শিவம் | 

‌‍‌ேদশயாமாஸ ஸংবுদ்ধஸ்தং வந்‌‍‌ேদ வদதாং வரம் ||

 

(In the absence of e-Grantamil font, the above text will be rendered as a admixture of Tamil & Bengali)

aksharamukha-gurmukhi

Punjabi (Gurmukhi)

Features of Gurmukhi Script 

Addak

Addak is a sign used in Gurumukhi orthography to denote the Gemination a.k.a doubling of the consonants. When it appears before a aspirate consonant, an unaspirated counterpart appears before it.

 

As an exception, /mm/ and /nn/ both use the Tippi for Gemination.

 

ਪੱਕੀ – /pakkī/

ਪੱਖੀ – /pakkhī/

 

When Gurmukhi text is transliterated into other scripts, the above conversion automatically happens.

Tippi and Bindi

Gurmukhi has two signs, namely Tippi  ੰ and Bindi . Both serve the same purpose of Nasalization. However, their contextual use with various vowels differs.

 

Present practice is to use bindi only with the dependent and independent forms of the vowels aa, ii, ee, ai, oo, and au, and with the independent vowels u and uu; tippi is used in the other contexts.  Both Tippi and Bindi are transliterated as Anusvara when converted to other scripts from Gurmukhi.

 

The converter however correctly places the Bindi and Tippi, based on Gurmukhi conventions during Transliteration into Gurmukhi script.

Gurmukhi Transcription

Gurmukhi is not pronounced as it is written. Punjabi is a Tonal language. The script is read based on several phonetic conventions [like Tamil] that could be found in detail on the above header links.

   

Transliteration Conventions

Addak, Tippi & Bindi

As said earlier Addak, Tippi & Bindi are done automatically based on the respective context.  

Gurmukhi Visarga

Gurmukhi Visarga is a late addition to the Unicode. Therefore, it is not supported by Windows XP’s Raavi. Use a font which supports Gurmukhi Visarga to view the Characater properly.

Gurmukhi SSA 

Gurmukhi lacks the equivalent letter for ṣ ष. So, I used the Nukta, and extended the letter ਸ਼ as ਸ਼਼ to transliterate ṣ. In some versions of the Uniscribe Engine this may not be dispayed properly. In that case, update your USP10.dll or remove the extra nukta from the text. 

 

Conversion Options

AM_Disable_Addak

Disable Addak

When other scripts are transliterated in Gurumukhi, by default the Addak is placed when Gemination occurs. If required, the placement of Addak can be disabled. Instead of the Addak, the corresponding pure consonant will be placed during Gemination.

 
/buddha/ – ਬੁੱਧ (with Addak)
                ਬੁਦ੍ਧ (without Addak)
 
  

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।  

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥   

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।  

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

Default Conversion

ਅਨਿਰੋਧਮ੍ ਅਨੁਤ੍ਪਾਦਮ੍ ਅਨੁੱਛੇਦਮ੍ ਅਸ਼ਾਸ਼੍ਵਤਮ੍ |   

ਅਨੇਕਾਰ੍ਥਮ੍ ਅਨਾਨਾਰ੍ਥਮ੍ ਅਨਾਗਮਮ੍ ਅਨਿਰ੍ਗਮਮ੍ ||   

ਯਃ ਪ੍ਰਤੀਤ੍ਯਸਮੁਤ੍ਪਾਦੰ ਪ੍ਰਪਞ੍ਚੋਪਸ਼ਮੰ ਸ਼ਿਵਮ੍ |   

ਦੇਸ਼ਯਾਮਾਸ ਸੰਬੁੱਧਸ੍ਤੰ ਵਨ੍ਦੇ ਵਦਤਾਂ ਵਰਮ੍ || 

 

With Addak Disabled

ਅਨਿਰੋਧਮ੍ ਅਨੁਤ੍ਪਾਦਮ੍ ਅਨੁਚ੍ਛੇਦਮ੍ ਅਸ਼ਾਸ਼੍ਵਤਮ੍ |   

ਅਨੇਕਾਰ੍ਥਮ੍ ਅਨਾਨਾਰ੍ਥਮ੍ ਅਨਾਗਮਮ੍ ਅਨਿਰ੍ਗਮਮ੍ ||   

ਯਃ ਪ੍ਰਤੀਤ੍ਯਸਮੁਤ੍ਪਾਦੰ ਪ੍ਰਪਞ੍ਚੋਪਸ਼ਮੰ ਸ਼ਿਵਮ੍ |   

ਦੇਸ਼ਯਾਮਾਸ ਸੰਬੁਦ੍ਧਸ੍ਤੰ ਵਨ੍ਦੇ ਵਦਤਾਂ ਵਰਮ੍ ||

Aksharamukha-gujarati

Gujarati

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

અનિરોધમ્ અનુત્પાદમ્ અનુચ્છેદમ્ અશાશ્વતમ્ |     

અનેકાર્થમ્ અનાનાર્થમ્ અનાગમમ્ અનિર્ગમમ્ ||      

યઃ પ્રતીત્યસમુત્પાદં પ્રપઞ્ચોપશમં શિવમ્ |    

દેશયામાસ સંબુદ્ધસ્તં વન્દે વદતાં વરમ્ ||

aksharamukha-brahmi

Asokan Brahmi

aksharamukha-brahmi

Brahmi Page @
Omniglot
 

Brahmi Orthography @
Ancient Scripts

Brahmi Script @
Wikipedia

Brahmi is the mother of most of the scripts is Indian subcontinent and South East Asia. Though  initially modeled to write the Prakrit languages, the script later extended itself with vocalic vowels and other signs, thus equipping itself to write Sanskrit & Dravidian languages as well.  

The early Asokan variant of brahmi lacks many conjuncts and vocalic letters.

 

Xenotype Asokan Brahmi

Xentotype Asokan Brahmi is the only Open Type font that is available for Brahmi, and that which has support for conjunct characters. To quote from their site:

 

Our support currently focuses on Early Brahmi and the writing of the Ashokan edicts. We started with the more regular forms and then added additional glyphs that don’t occur in the edicts to round out our support.

 

The font as of now only supports the early Asokan variant with minimal conjunct support, and does not support later conjuncts. The Xenotype Asokan Brahmi font is available for US$ 19

 

  Brahmi is encoded in Private Use Area of the Supplementary Multilingual Plane of the Unicode. The font was produced before Brahmi was encoded into the SMP of Unicode.

 

Asokan Brahmi Display

Xenotype Asokan Brahmi font has been specifically designed  for MacOSX, and will not work with windows or any other office application.  One needs to install Adobe Indesign to work with the font, as Indesign is the only software that is compatible with Apple’s font rendering.

 

The Text in the converter will appear incorrectly rendered, however when copied to Indesign, the text will be rendered correctly. 

 

xenotype_Brahmi_windows

Incorrect rendering of Xenotype Brahmi


xenotype_Brahmi_indesisgn

Correct rendering of Xenotype Brahmi (Adobe Indesign)

 

The IAST/Devanagari version of the above Brahmi Text:

 

devānapiyena piyadasina lājina vīsativasābhisitena
atana āgāca mahīyite hida budhe jāte sakyamunī ti
silāvigaḍabhīcā kālāpita silāthabhe ca usapāpite
pidabhagavajāteti luminigāme ubalikekaṭe
aṭhabhāgiye ca

devānapiyena piyadasina lājina vīsativasābhisitena atana āgāca mahīyite hida budhe jāte sakyamunī ti silāvigaḍabhīcā kālāpita silāthabhe ca usapāpite pidabhagavajāteti luminigāme ubalikekaṭe aṭhabhāgiye ca

 

देवानपियेन पियदसिन लाजिन वीसतिवसाभिसितेन अतन आगाच महीयिते हिद बुधे जाते सक्यमुनी ति सिलाविगडभीचा कालापित सिलाथभे च उसपापिते पिदभगवजातेति लुमिनिगामे उबलिकेकटे अठभागिये च

 

Limitations

Extra Brahmic Letters

The Xenotype Brahmi does not support Chandrabindu, Anusvara, Visarga, Vocalic Vowels & Dravidan letters, and other script/Language specific letters. If you try converting text containing such characters into Brahmi, you will get a ” X ” character (or sometimes a square ) in the converted text, showing that those characters don’t exist in Asokan Brahmi.

 

Conjuncts

As said, earlier, Xenotype Brahmi font does not has complete support for Conjuncts. 

 

buddha_sakyamuni_Brahmi

buddha śākyamuni” in Xenotype Asokan Brahmi.

 

In the above example, “ddha” is rendered incorrectly properly, due to the lack of conjuct support. The underscore-like character between /d/ & /dha/ shows that that conjunct is not supported. However, /kya/ conjunct is rendered correctly without the underscore-like character

Aksharamukha-Khmer

Khmer

Aksharamukha-Khmer

Khmer Page @
Omniglot
 

Khmer Orthography @
World’s Writing System

Khmer Script @
Wikipedia

Khmer one of the most beautiful scripts around (Ofcourse next to Siddham 🙂 ) Similar to Burmese – a derivation of the Pallava Script, it retains the Sanskrit Varnamala as such with one-to-one correspondence to the Indic model for Consonants alone. As in Burmese, it has appended a huge list of Vowels and other Tonal Marker to represent the native phonemes.

 

The Character set use to Sanskrit/Pali is as follows:

 

Vowels

   a        ā         i        ī          u        ū        ṛ       ṝ        ḷ        ḹ        e       ai       o      au     aṁ      aḥ

khmer_vowels

Consonants

  ka        kha      ga        gha       ṅa

khmer_ka_varga 

   ca       cha     ja        jha           ña

khmer_ca_varga

  ṭa       ṭha     ḍa       ḍha          ṇa

khmer_ta_varga

   ta       tha        da       dha       na

khmer_tha_varga

  pa       pha       ba       bha       ma

khmer_pa_varga

    ya      ra         la       va

khmer_ya_varga

 śa       ṣa        sa         ha        ḽa(ळ)

khmer_sha_varga

Consonant-Vowels Combinations

    ka        kā          ki         kī         ku        kū        kṛ       kṝ         kḷ

khmer_ka_vow_comb1

 

    kḹ         ke            kai           ko              kau       kaṁ        kaḥ

khmer_ka_vow_comb2

 

Khmer has lost the signs for the Vocalic signs. At present, Subjoined version of the Vocalic vowels are used to represent the sound in Vowel-Consonant combination.

 

Conjuncts

See: Omniglot Page

 

Khmer Repha

Khmer has a relic usage of Repha in borrowed Indic words. In Khmer Unicode, Repha has been encoded as a separate character U+17CC Khmer Sign Robat. The convertor uses the Repha by default.

 

/dharma/ – khmer_dharma (The diacritic above ma is the Repha)

 

Khmer Unicode

Khmer Unicode Block has two Viramas encoded. One is a subjoining Virama U+17D2 (Khmer Sign Coeng) and another is a visible Virama U+17D1 (Khmer Sign Viriam). The sub-joining Virama is used to form Subjoning conjuncts even with Vowels, where the Khmer Sign Viram is the explicit inherent vowel killer.

 

Fonts

Khmer fonts seem to have complete support for displaying Sanskrit Conjuncts and Vowel sign combinations. Fonts generally support 3 level of Consonant Stacking.

 

There are two typefaces for Khmer. One is the normal version and the other is a ornamental cursive variant of the script. DaunPenh displays the normal form & MoolBoran the latter ornamental form. These fonts are available with Windows.

 

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

Normal Typeface (DaunPenh):

 

អនិរោធម៑ អនុត្បាទម៑ អនុច្ឆេទម៑ អឝាឝ្វតម៑ ។  

អនេកាត៌្ហម៑ អនានាត៌្ហម៑ អនាគមម៑ អនិគ៌មម៑ ៕    

យះ ប្រតីត្យសមុត្បាទំ ប្របញ្ចោបឝមំ ឝិវម៑ ។   

ទេឝយាមាស សំពុទ្ធស្តំ វន្ទេ វទតាំ វរម៑ ៕   

 

Ornamental Typeface (Mool Boran):

 

អនិរោធម៑ អនុត្បាទម៑ អនុច្ឆេទម៑ អឝាឝ្វតម៑ ។  

អនេកាត៌្ហម៑ អនានាត៌្ហម៑ អនាគមម៑ អនិគ៌មម៑ ៕    

យះ ប្រតីត្យសមុត្បាទំ ប្របញ្ចោបឝមំ ឝិវម៑ ។   

ទេឝយាមាស សំពុទ្ធស្តំ វន្ទេ វទតាំ វរម៑ ៕   

 

(In the absence of the specific fonts, both the passages will be rendered using the same typeface)

 

Further Reading

1. N2412: On the suitability of the COENG encoding model for Khmer

Aksharamukha-burmese

Burmese

Aksharamukha-burmese

Burmese Page @
Omniglot
 

Burmese Orthography @
World’s Writing System

Burmese Script @
Wikipedia

Burmese is one of Scripts in which the Pali Tripitaka is recorded. The Script has expanded itself from the basic brahmic model to include more vowels and tone markers. 

 

The following Character set is used to write Sanskrit/Pali.

 

Vowels

   a          ā         i            ī        u       ū      ṛ       ṝ      ḷ      ḹ      e      ai         o             au            aṁ      aḥ

Burmese__Vowels

There are also other various vowel combinations used to write the native language. 

 

Consonants

     ka        kha       ga        gha        ṅa

က ခ ဂ ဃ င
စ ဆ ဇ ဈ ဉ
ဋ ဌ ဍ ဎ ဏ
တ ထ ဒ ဓ န
ပ ဖ ဗ ဘ မ
ယ ရ လ ဝ
ၑ ၐ သ ဟ ဠ

bur_ka__varga

  ca         cha        ja          jha       ña

bur_ca_varga

   ṭa         ṭha      ḍa       ḍha         ṇa

bur_ta_varga

     ta            tha          da       dha      na

bur_tha_varga

    pa       pha       ba           bha        ma

bur_pa_varga

    ya            ra           la           va 

bur_ya_varga

   śa         ṣa          sa            ha           ḽa(ळ)

bur_sha_varga

 

There are other two consonants which represent geminate sounds /s/ & /ñ/
  
      ssa               ñña
bur_ssa_nna

Consonant-Vowel Combinations  

     ka           kā               ki           kī           ku          kū           kṛ                kṝ

bur_ka_vowel_comb1

 

    kḷ             kḹ               ke           kai                ko                 kau               kaṁ         kaḥ

bur_ka_vowel_comb2

 

Conjuncts

Burmese follows subjoined model for conjuncts except for /ra/ & /ya/. The second consonant takes a minature form below the first consonant to form the conjuncts cluster.

 

    sta              tpa           kta           hma          jjha

bur_conjunct

Clusters with ./r/, /y/, /h/ & /v/ have special forms.

 

    mra        mya       mha      mva

bur_special_conj

 

Pure Consonant ṅ takes a special form above the base consonant, it is called as Kinzi.

gaṅgā –  bur_kinzi

 

Also, Note the change of shape for Vowel Sign aa with /ga/. Vowel Sign aa changes shape with consonants kha ga ṅa da pa va. 

 

As combination with normal /aa/ could be mistaken for another consonant.

 

(For more information of Burmese script: see: http://people.w3.org/rishida/scripts/myanmar )

 

Burmese Unicode

Burmese Unicode has undergone a great number of change from version 5.1. Both versions are nearly incompatible.

 

Until Version 5.0, The Burmese block nearly followed the Main Land Indic Model. It had a single Virama and Atomic Medial Signs were not encoded. Contextual shape changing for vowel sign aa was in place.

 

But from 5.1 the following changes were made

  • Two Viramas are now encoded. One is a subjoining Virama U+1039 and other is an Explicit Virama U+103A (ASAT)
  • Medial Signs were encoded separately bur_medial Medial ra, Media ya, Medial va and Media ha respectively. In the previous version, these were formed using Virama similar to other Indic scripts..
    • Kra should now be encoded as /ka/ + Medial ra. (Similarly for the other medial letters )

  • Two Vowel Signs for /aa/ are encoded. Previously, The shape was decided by the intelligent rendering of the font. But now the shape has to be decided explicitly.
  • Kinzi previously rendered using a simple Virama, now must be rendered as a combination of  U+1004 Nga, U+103A Asat and U+1039 Virama

 

AM_burmese

The converter can render the text in Old Unicode by selecting the corresponding Checkbox  – Old Burmese Unicode. Do note that, that this text would be incompatible with fonts that support the new version.

 

Font Issues for displaying Sanskrit Text

Burmese has 3 good fonts for displaying Pali/Sanskrit. Padauk, Myanmar 1 & Myanmar 3 (and its variant Myanmar3h)

 

(See: http://www.myanmarnlp.net.mm/opentype.htm & my.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Font#Unicode_5.1_Myanmar.2FBurmese_fonts)

 

All these fonts have near full support of Displaying pali text, since Pali doesn’t have complex conjuncts and consonant clusters similar to Sanskrit.

 

The fonts do not support conjuncts with 3 consonants or more (Except for ra, ya, va which have special forms). The subjoining consonants overlap below the base character. In that case,a visible Virama can be used to display the conjuncts properly.

 

Myanamar3

It doesn’t support combinations with Visarga. A dotted circle appears with Visarga, when combined with consonants. The same occurs with Vocalic Signs

bur_myan3_voc

However it supports various conjuncts like kṣa, jña etc which Padauk doesn’t render properly. It also has problems with Tall aa & Kinzi combinations.

bur_myan3_ksha

 

Padauk

A great looking font which supports Visarga and Vocalic Signs. But strangely it doesn’t render conjuncts such as  kṣa, jña among others. 

bur_padau_ksha 

One work-around is to replace the subjoining Virama with the explicit Virama 

bur_myan_ksha_virama

Also complex conjuncts with ya like trya are not supported. In which case, one has to switch to Myanmar fonts.

myan_pad_trya

 

Myanamar1 

This is a font based on the old Encoding. Mimics the Indic model as such. It supports Visarga and Vocalic Signs. Also renders complex combinations /trya/ properly.

 

However, does not render Media ra with SSA & SHA. The Medial sign is displayed after the consonant instead of the front of consonant. 

 

It forms a explicit virama over conjuncts such as  kṣa, jña etc automatically, as it doesn’t have a base-below rendering for those consonants. 

 

Recommended Fonts

It is recommended to use Padauk (New Unicode) or Myanmar1 (Old Unicode) for displaying Sanskrit in Burmese.

 

For displaying for text complex conjuncts, the following technique can be followed:

 

Myanmar1 and Myanmar3 typefaces are more similar, Intelligent font switching can be used to render the text correctly. In a Myanamar1 text, the unsupported Conjunct text can be changed to Myanamar3, to display them correctly. The font size may also have to be changed to suit the text.

 

An example for Mixed font selection is shown below:

 

nirvikalpe namastubhyaṁ prajñāpāramitemite 

yā tvaṁ sarvānavadyāṅgi niravadyairnirīkṣyase 

 

bur_mixed_font

 

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

အနိရောဓမ် အနုတ္ပာဒမ် အနုစ္ဆေဒမ် အၑာၑွတမ် ၊ 

အနေကာရ္ထမ် အနာနာရ္ထမ် အနာဂမမ် အနိရ္ဂမမ် ။   

ယး ပြတီတျသမုတ္ပာဒံ ပြပဉ္စောပၑမံ ၑိဝမ် ၊  

ဒေၑယာမာသ သံဗုဒ္ဓသ္တံ ဝန္ဒေ ဝဒတာံ ဝရမ် 

 

Aksharamukha-be

Bengali

Nativization Conventions

The following Nativization conventions are automatically applied when Bengali is the Target Script.

 

  • व /va/ is replaced by /ba/. (e.g) शिव – শিব
  • य /ya/ is converted to য /YA/ & য় /YYA/ based on native Bengali conventions (see below)
  • pure consonant /t/ त् is changed into Khanda Ta based on its position. (e.g) भगवत् – ভগবত্‍

 

Preserve Source

The above nativization conventions are not applied, and /va/ is preserved in the Target Script using the Assamese /va/

 

Features of Bengali Script

Bengali YA & YYA

Similar to Oriya, Bengali has two letters to represent the pan-Indic /ya/, namely  YA & য় YYA. There are certain conventions that dictate their usage, while transliterating the Sanskrit /ya/. 

 

The following Conventions are usually applied:   

  • YA when /ya/ occurs word initial.
  • YA when /ya/ appear as post-consonantal conjunct e.g hya etc.
  • YYA in all other cases

 

The converter automatically uses /YA/ & /YYA/ based on context.

Assamese VA

Bengali doesn’t use /va/. Usually ব /ba/ is used to represent /va/ as is the case in all Eastern Scripts. However, in Assamese (which uses Begali Script) ৱ U+09F1 is used to represents /va/.  

 

Khanda Ta

Similar to the Malayalam Chillus, Bengali has an Atomic Character called “Khanda Ta”  that represents the pure consonant /ta/. By default, word final /t/ would become a Khanda Ta. Apart from /tra/, /ttha/, /tya/, /tba/, /tla/, the other conjuncts with pre-consonantal /ta/ would be rendered with Khanda Ta only.  As in YYA, in strict sense, Khanda Ta as a later innovation in Bengali Script, hence will not be found in older manuscripts.  Unlike Chillu Characters, the Khanda Ta doesn’t carry any semantic meaning, being just a glyph variant for vowelless /ta/ ত. 

 

Initially in Unicode, it was represented using the Unicode control character – Zero Width Joiner (ZWJ) as in <ta, Virama (Hasanta), ZWJ>. Later, It was allocated a separate code point in the Bengali code block.

 

Bengali Transcription

Bengali is not pronounced strictly as it is written. Even though Sanskrit spellings are retained, the pronunciation is not retained. The inherent vowel also varies depending upon the context. For detailed info see : Ishida’s Bengali Script Notes

 

Bengali Font

Display Issues with Khanda Ta

The Converted use the Code point U+09CE to display Khanda Ta. It was added to unicode at a later date. The XP version of Vrinda doesn’t have support for this Character. It is supported in Vista/7. If in XP, you need a suitable font which supports this character.

  

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।    

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥     

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।     

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

Default Conversion

অনিরোধম্ অনুৎপাদম্ অনুচ্ছেদম্ অশাশ্বতম্|  

অনেকার্থম্ অনানার্থম্ অনাগমম্ অনির্গমম্ ||     

যঃ প্রতীত্যসমুৎপাদং প্রপঞ্চোপশমং শিবম্ |     

দেশয়ামাস সংবুদ্ধস্তং বন্দে বদতাং বরম্ ||

 

Source Preserved

অনিরোধম্ অনুৎপাদম্ অনুচ্ছেদম্ অশাশ্ৱতম্ |     

অনেকার্থম্ অনানার্থম্ অনাগমম্ অনির্গমম্ ||      

যঃ প্রতীত্যসমুৎপাদং প্রপঞ্চোপশমং শিৱম্ |      

দেশযামাস সংবুদ্ধস্তং ৱন্দে ৱদতাং ৱরম্ || 

 

Assamese

Assamese Script is same as the Bengali script except for the character /ra/ and /va/. Assamese uses U+09F0 for ra. All conventions intended for Bengali Script is applicable for the Assamese variant too.

  

 অনিৰোধম্ অনুৎপাদম্ অনুচ্ছেদম্ অশাশ্ৱতম্ |    

অনেকাৰ্থম্ অনানাৰ্থম্ অনাগমম্ অনিৰ্গমম্ ||    

যঃ প্ৰতীত্যসমুৎপাদং প্ৰপঞ্চোপশমং শিৱম্ |    

দেশয়ামাস সংবুদ্ধস্তং ৱন্দে ৱদতাং ৱৰম্ ||

 

Conversion Options

Disable Khanda Ta 

AM_khanda_ta 

Khanda Ta is removed from the Text. It is replaced by <ta, virama (Hasant)>

 

অনিরোধম্ অনুত্পাদম্ অনুচ্ছেদম্ অশাশ্ৱতম্ |     

অনেকার্থম্ অনানার্থম্ অনাগমম্ অনির্গমম্ ||      

যঃ প্রতীত্যসমুত্পাদং প্রপঞ্চোপশমং শিৱম্ |    

 দেশযামাস সংবুদ্ধস্তং ৱন্দে ৱদতাং ৱরম্ ||

aksharamukha-kan

Kannada

Nativization Conventions

The following Nativization conventions are automatically applied when Kannada is the Target Script.

 

The Nasal letters are converted into Anusvara  (e.g) पञ्च – పంచ, वेङ्कट – వేంకట
The pure consonant ‘m’ occurs as the final syllable, it is changed into Anusvara (e.g) सत्यम् – సత్యం
  • The Nasal letters are converted into Anusvara  (e.g) पञ्च – ಪಂಚ, वेङ्कट – ವೇಂಕಟ
  • The pure consonant ‘m’when occuring as the final syllable, it is changed into Anusvara (e.g) सत्यम् – ಸತ್ಯಂ 

 

To Preserve the Source Text without any conventions being applied, select “preserve source 

 

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।   

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥   

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।   

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥     

 

Default Conversion

ಅನಿರೋಧಂ ಅನುತ್ಪಾದಂ ಅನುಚ್ಛೇದಂ ಅಶಾಶ್ವತಂ |    

ಅನೇಕಾರ್ಥಂ ಅನಾನಾರ್ಥಂ ಅನಾಗಮಂ ಅನಿರ್ಗಮಂ ||    

ಯಃ ಪ್ರತೀತ್ಯಸಮುತ್ಪಾದಂ ಪ್ರಪಂಚೋಪಶಮಂ ಶಿವಂ |    

ದೇಶಯಾಮಾಸ ಸಂಬುದ್ಧಸ್ತಂ ವಂದೇ ವದತಾಂ ವರಂ ||    

 

Source Preserved

ಅನಿರೋಧಮ್ ಅನುತ್ಪಾದಮ್ ಅನುಚ್ಛೇದಮ್ ಅಶಾಶ್ವತಮ್ |    

ಅನೇಕಾರ್ಥಮ್ ಅನಾನಾರ್ಥಮ್ ಅನಾಗಮಮ್ ಅನಿರ್ಗಮಮ್ ||    

ಯಃ ಪ್ರತೀತ್ಯಸಮುತ್ಪಾದಂ ಪ್ರಪಞ್ಚೋಪಶಮಂ ಶಿವಮ್ |    

ದೇಶಯಾಮಾಸ ಸಂಬುದ್ಧಸ್ತಂ ವನ್ದೇ ವದತಾಂ ವರಮ್ ||    

 

Other Features of Kannada Script

Avagraha

Kannada a special sign of Avagraha – ಽ . The XP version of Tunga doesn’t have support for this Character. It is supported in Vista/7. If in XP, you need a suitable font which supports this character. 

Kannada Nukta

kannada_zaInterestingly, similar to the North Indic Scripts, Kannada has a Nukta Character to create new consonants. Infact, Kannada is the only South Indian scrpt to have a nukta natively. This Nukta character mostly is used to create new characters for /za/ & /fa/ from /ja/ & /pha/ respectively.

 The Kannada nukta has been utilized in the converter to create to the Kannada equivalent of Tamil ன ನ಼, and as to represent the nukta-based northern perso-arabic characters like क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ ड़ ढ़ फ़ य़ as the Kannada equivalents ಕ಼ ಖ಼ ಗ಼ ಜ಼ ಡ಼ ಢ಼ ಫ಼ ಯ಼ using the Kannada Nukta.

 

Kannada Nukta appears only on Windows Vista & above. Else a suitable supported font must be installed. 

aksharamukha-te

Telugu

Nativization Conventions

The following Nativization conventions are automatically applied when Telugu is the Target Script.
  • The Nasal letters are converted into Anusvara  (e.g) पञ्च – పంచ, वेङ्कट – వేంకట
  • The pure consonant ‘m’ when occuring as the final syllable, it is changed into Anusvara (e.g) सत्यम् – సత్యం

 

To Preserve the Source Text without any conventions being applied, select “preserve source

 

Sample Sanskrit Text

अनिरोधम् अनुत्पादम् अनुच्छेदम् अशाश्वतम् ।

अनेकार्थम् अनानार्थम् अनागमम् अनिर्गमम् ॥

यः प्रतीत्यसमुत्पादं प्रपञ्चोपशमं शिवम् ।

देशयामास संबुद्धस्तं वन्दे वदतां वरम् ॥

 

Default Conversion

అనిరోధం అనుత్పాదం అనుచ్ఛేదం అశాశ్వతం |
అనేకార్థం అనానార్థం అనాగమం అనిర్గమం ||
యః ప్రతీత్యసముత్పాదం ప్రపంచోపశమం శివం |
దేశయామాస సంబుద్ధస్తం వందే వదతాం వరం ||
అనిరోధం అనుత్పాదం అనుచ్ఛేదం అశాశ్వతం |   
అనేకార్థం అనానార్థం అనాగమం అనిర్గమం ||   
యః ప్రతీత్యసముత్పాదం ప్రపంచోపశమం శివం |   
దేశయామాస సంబుద్ధస్తం వందే వదతాం వరం ||
 

Source Preserved

అనిరోధమ్ అనుత్పాదమ్ అనుచ్ఛేదమ్ అశాశ్వతమ్ |   
అనేకార్థమ్ అనానార్థమ్ అనాగమమ్ అనిర్గమమ్ ||   
యః ప్రతీత్యసముత్పాదం ప్రపఞ్చోపశమం శివమ్ |   
దేశయామాస సంబుద్ధస్తం వన్దే వదతాం వరమ్ ||    
 

Other Features of Telugu Script

Avagraha

Telugu has a native Avagraha character – ఽ . The XP version of Gautami doesn’t have support for this Character. It is supported in Vista/7. If in XP, you need a suitable font which supports this character.

 

Telugu Letters Tsa & Dza

Telugu has two palatalized letters Tsa & Dza which are not found in other dravidian languages. In the ealy days, the graphemes of /ca/ & /ja/ were used to represent these palatized letters. It was Brown who chose to differentiate these letters from the rest of the syllabary. He placed the Telugu Numeral two on top of /ca/ & /ja/ to represent /ts/ & /dza/.

Telugu_tsa_dza

However, the letters are not currently in wide usage. The Official Goverment curriculum also doesn’t include these letters any more. I have not included these letters in the converter either, as their usage is extremely rare.

Telugu Repha

Similar to Kannada, Telugu also used to have special Repha symbol for pre-consonantal /ra/ such as sarva etc. But the usage of Repha seems to have disappeared in recent times. It is called as “Valapala Gilaka” in Telugu. 

 

telugu_repha_kurhcuntu

  kūrcuṁṭū – కూర్చుంటూ

See this article too – Book of John in Telugu

Telugu Word Final /n/

Similar to Khanda Ta & Malaylam Chillus (Refer to Bengali & Malayalam Section), Telugu has a special symbol to represent word final pure consonant /n/. However that symbol is not used any more, being superseded by the Virama form /న్/ <na> + <virama> . It is often used in archaic sanskrit texts. It is known as “Nakaara Pollu” in Telugu. It has not been encoded into Unicode yet.

 

Nakara_pollu

lōkān – లోకాన్ 

Parivriddha Telugu

For proper display of Parivriddha Telugu, download the “Parivriddha Telugu” font from here. For more information on Parivriddha Telugu.