Headers Already Sent !

Many people working with PHP would have encountered this very annoying “headers already sent” error, when working with Cookies or Sessions. This error appears, when some HTML output is sent, before the session/cookie handling begins.


Most of the Time, an Extra character before the PHP Tag is the reason. Even an Extra space before the PHP starting Tag, will Trigger is annoying error. Now, It may appear that even if there are no additional characters before the Tag, the error still appears ! Sounds, Fishy right ?


This may happen due to the Text editor that is used to Edit the php file. Probably, the Text editor inserted some additional character, which generated this error. Ah, that last one was the one I had to face.

I finally figured out the the Encoding of the file was the main reason. I had save the file as UTF-8 encodiung in the editor. The editor added extra information (BOM) at the beginning of the file, to identify the encoding as UTF-8.


There was noway, that I could the file as plain Text, I worked with Multi-Lingual Text. Everything would become appear as question marks if I had to force plain text.  Luckily, Editors like Notepad++ provide the option to save the file in UTF-9 without BOM. Presto ! problem solved :-). So, if you are working with multilingual PHP files, always save in UTF-8 without BOM.


[Another instant and dirty work-around is to save the entire body portion of the PHP as a separate PHP file with UTF encoding, and include it in the main file 🙂 ]


So, if any of you guys any such issues try the above, probably it wold clear the issue.

Wapache for Desktop PHP applications

At some point of time, some of us would have had the necessity run the Web Application we have developed in desktop, offline. Also Everyone would definitely like their App to run on desktop too.


To do this, there is a tedious process of installing a local copy of WAMP, and then using localhost to run the App in the web browser. An average user cannot be expected to go through all this hassle to run the App.


Instead of going through all this, there is a package called “Wapache” to create Desktop Applications from the existing code without any modifications, instantly. 


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Srishtikarta Lokeshvara

Sru-BeSṛṣṭikartā Lokeśvara, one of the 108 forms of Avalokiteshvara, is perhaps the most interesting form of Avalokiteshvara, apart from Hari Hari Hari Vahana Lokeshvara. Here Avalokiteshvara assumes the form of Srishtikarta (i.e Creator) emanating all the Vedic gods from his body, for the benefit of all the beings. According to Lokesh Chandra, Bhattacharya misread sṛṣṭikartā as sṛṣṭikāntā (which actually reads something awkward like Creation-lovely or something similar, that too in the feminine !) Lokeshvara in his Book “Indian Buddhist Iconography”.
The depiction of Srishtikarta Lokeshvara is derived from the Karandavyuha Sutra, where Bhagavan Shakyamuni descibes how Avalokiteshvara emanated all the Vedic gods from his body, for the welfare of all living beings. Here Avalokiteshvara assumes the form similar to that of the Vedic Purusha, producing all the deities, thus assuming the form of Srishtikarta. In this particular hymn, he even acquires a role similar to that of the Vedic Purusha, apart from the associated activity.

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Generating Combining Forms in Devanagari

la_half_devanagariUnicode has been a boon for Indic Computing. Before the Arrival of Unicode, Indic scripts usually resorted to hack encoding of Latin & Extended Latin to encode them. This resulted in the creation of numerous non-standard fonts which were mutually incompatible. Every application, or website followed its own encoding schememe. Thanks to Unicode, Indic Scripts now have a uniforms standard, though legacy fonts are still in use albeit much restricted.

The introduction radicalized Indic font encodings, by resorting to logical order of the characters rather than the visual order. But It has its own limitation. In legacy fonts, the display of the script could be twisted and extended to suit our own needs. As, the scripts were encoded as glyph pieces. 
Even in Unicode it is possible to generate some of the glyph pieces, using Unicode control characters. 

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Hari Hari Hari Vahana Lokeshvara

ha_malayalamDuring the days when E-Sangha, was up and active, there was a thread on Hari Hari Hari Vahana Lokeshara (No.. The Name is not a Typo.. 🙂 ). I had come across this Interesting form of Avalokitesvhara from the book “Indian Buddhist Iconography”. So I started a thread on Hari-Hari-Hari-Vahana Lokeshvara, where lot of Information had been gathered about this peculiar form of Avalokiteshvara (mostly by me). Given that E-Sangha is down, I thought I could replicate the information here. Hari Hari Hari Vahana Lokeshvara is one of the 108 forms of Avalokitesvara.
The Author of Indian Buddhist Iconography quotes a Shloka about HHHV Lokeshvara, from the text Sādhanāmāla, to describe Avalokitesvara as follows
harihariharivāhanodbhavaṁ bhagavantaṁ ārya-avalokiteśvaraṁ sarvāṅgaśuklaṁ jaṭāmukuṭinaṁ śāntaveśaṁ dakṣiṇakareṇa bhagavantaṁ tathāgataṁ sākṣiṇaṁ kurvantaṁ dvitīyena akṣamālādhārṇaṁ tṛtīyena duḥkuhakaṁ lokaṁ upadeśayantaṁ vāmena daṇḍadharaṁ dvitīyena kṛṣṇājinadharam tṛtīyena kamaṇḍaladharaṁ siṁha-garuḍa-viṣṇu-skandhasthitaṁ ātmānam dhyātvā…
The worshipper should think himself as the Harihariharivahana form of Avalokiteshvara, white in all limbs, with the Jatamukuta, and clad in graceful garments. He cites the Tathagata as witness with one of his right hands, carries the rosary in the second, and instructs deluded people with the third. He carries the staff in one of his left hands, the deer skin in the second and the Kamandalu in the third. He sits on the shoulder of Vishnu below whom there are Garuda and the lion. Thus meditating…

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Book of John in Telugu – 1860

Repha-TeWhile writing the “Telugu Notes” for the Aksharamukha convertor, I suddenly remembered seeing the usage of Repha in Telugu script somewhere. Modern Telugu doesn’t use any Repha symbol. But its sister script, Kannada preserves the usage of Repha till to this day.


For those who do not know what exactly a Repha is, It is basically a special symbol to denote pre-consonantal /ra/. Such as in these words sarva, varga etc. Many Brahmic Scripts possess a repha.


Back to what I was speaking about, yeah so, I recollected that I has seen the usage of Telugu Repha in old version of a Telugu Bible that was published in 1860.. On searching my pdf dumps in my PC, I found the file which I had downloaded, probably from archive.org long time ago.


The Title of the book itself had a prominent Repha :


yōhānu vrāsina suvārta – యోహాను వ్రాసిన సువార్త 

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