namo_bhagavate_grantha_corrected

Grantha – 7 – Summary I

namo_bhagavate_grantha_corrected

| ॐ नमो भगवते । ஓம்ʼ நமோ ப⁴க³வதே |

 


buddha_abhaya_varada

shunyata_quote_grantha_corrected 
रूपान् न पृथक् शून्यता | ரூபாந் ந ப்ருʼத²க் ஸூ²ந்யதா
शून्यताया न पृथग् रूपम् | ஸூ²ந்யதாயா ந ப்ருʼத²க்³ ரூபம்
Form is not different from Voidness
Voidness is not different from Form
 ~ From Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya | प्रज्ञापारमिता हृदय । ப்ரஜ்ஞாபாரமிதா ஹ்ருʼத³யம் 

In the previous lessons we had covered all the Vowels, Consonants and the Ayogavāha-s.
 
In this lesson, we will be seeing a complete summary of all that we have seen in the previous lessons. 

 

Vowels

There are fourteen Vowels in Sanskrit. They are called Svara-s स्वर ஸ்வரம். Tamil:  உயிர் எழுத்து uyir ĕḻuttu उयिर् ऎळुत्तु  


a ī i ī u ū ṛ ṝ | अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ॠ । அ ஆ இ ஈ உ ஊ ருʼ ரூʼ 

ḷ ḹ e ai o au | ऌ ॡ ए ऐ ओ औ । லுʼ லூʼ ஏ ஐ ஓ ஔ

 

grantha_vowels

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namo_samantabhadra_grantha

Grantha – 6 – Consonants ya – ha

namo_samantabhadra_grantha

| ॐ नम: समन्तभद्राय । ஓம்ʼ நம: ஸமந்தப⁴த்³ராய |

 


buddha_bodhi_tree

namah_shakyamunaye_grantha
नमः शाक्यमुनये तथागताय अर्हते सम्यक्सम्बुद्धाय
तद्यथा ॐ मुने मुने महामुनये स्वाहा 
நம​: ஸ²‍ாக்யமுநயே தத²‍ாக³தாய அர்ஹதே ஸம்யக்ஸம்பு³த்³த⁴‍ாய
தத்³யத²‍ா ஓம்ʼ முநே முநே மஹாமுநயே ஸ்வாஹா  
 

 

Time to move away from the Varga-Consonants to the end of the Vyanjana group. The are two classes of Consonants that we will see in this lesson – Semivowels and the Fricatives. 

 

Semi Vowels

The Semi Vowels are called as antaḥstha अन्तःस्थ அந்த:ஸ்த²‍ antahstha_sanskrit. Four Consonants (Five, if we include the Retroflex l) come under this class. 

 

 ya ய य 

ya_grantha

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namo_tathagataya_grantha

Grantha – 5 – Consonants ta – pa

namo_tathagataya_grantha

| ॐ नमस्तथागताय । ஓம்ʼ நமஸ்ததா²க³​தாய |

 


buddha_reclining2

buddha5_quote2_grantha
यो धर्मं पश्यति स बुद्धं पश्यति
யோ த⁴ர்மம்ʼ பஸ்²யதி ஸ பு³த்³த⁴ம்ʼ பஸ்²யதி
Whoever sees the Dharma, sees the Buddha


 

As of now, in the consonant series, we had covered, three Vargas – ka_grantha Varga, ca_grantha Varga & tta_grantha Varga.  We will be seeing another two Vargas with the Ayogavāha – Upadhmānīya. 

 

ta-varga

The ta-varga is known as dantya दन्त्य த³ந்த்ய dantya_grantha i.e Dental 

 

 ta த त 

ta_grantha

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namo_dharmarajaya_corrected_grantha

Grantha – 4 – Consonants ca – ṭa

namo_dharmarajaya_corrected_grantha

| ॐ नमो धर्मराजाय । ஓம்ʼ நமோ த⁴ர்மராஜாய |

 


buddha_dhayana

quote_ca_ta_grantha

  | यत् करोति शुभं कर्मं सुखं तस्य भविष्यति । यत् करोति अशुभं कर्मं दुःखम् एव भविष्यति ।

  | யத் கரோதி ஸு²ப⁴ம்ʼ கர்மம்ʼ ஸுக²ம்ʼ தஸ்ய ப⁴விஷ்யதி | 

  | யத் கரோதி அஸு²ப⁴ம்ʼ கர்மம்ʼ து³​:க²ம் ஏவ ப⁴விஷ்யதி | 

  || Those who do Auspicious deeds, happiness will happen for them ||

  || Those who do Inauspicious deeds, only suffering will happen || 

 


 

Now for the fourth lesson. In the previous lesson, we had covered the ka_grantha varga along with Jihvāmūlīya (and Ardha-Visarga ardha_visarga_grantha). Henceforth, Roman/Tamil/Devanagari equivalent will not be used to for letters that have been already covered. 

 

We will see two more Vargas now.

 

ca-varga

The ca-varga is known as tālavyā तालव्य தாலவ்ய talavya_grantha i.e palatal

 

 ca ச च

ca_grantha

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namo_buddhaya_grantha

Grantha – 3 – Consonants – Ka

namo_buddhaya_grantha

| ॐ नमो बुद्धाय । ஓம்ʼ நமோ பு³த்³தா⁴ய |

 


bhumisparsha-buddha-plain-body-small

consonant_quote_grantha

|| ततः प्रवृत्तं मम धर्मचक्रं || தத​: ப்ரவ்ருʼத்தம்ʼ மம த⁴ர்மசக்ரம்ʼ ||

|| निर्वाणशब्दश्च अभूषि लोके || நிர்வாணஸ²ப்³த³ஸ்²ச அபூ⁴ஷி லோகே ||

|| Then rolled my Dharmachakra & the sound of Nirvaana was present in the world ||

 


 

In the previous lessons, we have learnt the various vowels, two of the Ayogavāha-s & orthographic items such as Avagraha and Chandrabindu.

 

Now, we must graduate to the Consonants :-).  In Sanskrit, Consonants are called as Vyañjana व्यञ्जन வ்யஞ்ஜந vyanjana_sanskrit.

The Vyanjana-s are divided into classes called Varga वर्ग வர்க³  varga_grantha. Each Varga ends with a Nasal i.e Anunāsika अनुनासिक அநுநாஸிக anunasika_grantha.

 

Sanskrit [and of course Prakrit] have separate symbols of Voiced, Aspirated and their various combinations thereof. The main difficulty for an eventual Tamil reader to pronounce Sanskrit [and/or Prakrit] would be pertaining to the pronunciation of Mahāprāṇa महाप्राण மஹாப்ராண mahaprana_grantha Consonants. They must be pronounced with Aspiration i.e with a puff of air [h]. Such as kha gha etc.

 

On the other hand those consonants without this aspiration are known as Alpraprāṇa अल्पप्राण அல்பப்ராண alpaprana_grantha

 

We would be seeing a single Varga of the Vyanjanas and one Ayogavaha, the Jihvāmūlīya (along with it the associated Ardha-Visarga symbol)  in this lesson. 

 

ka-varga

First will be the ka-varga . They come under Kaṇṭhya कण्ठ्य கண்ட்²ய kanthya_grantha, meaning those produced in the throat [Technically, the consonants are produced at the back of tongue. Probably, Throat is an approximation for that position]

 

 ka க क

ka_grantha

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namah_sugataya_grantha

Grantha – 2 – Ayogavaha

namah_sugataya_grantha

 | ॐ नमः सुगताय  | ஓம்ʼ நம: ஸுக³தாய |

 


seated_buddha_2

grantha_ubhayakashara_quote

|| अयं हि बोधिसत्त्वानाम् अद्वयप्रवेशः |  तस्मिन् अक्षरवचनविज्ञप्तिप्रचारो नास्ति ||

     ||அயம்ʼ ஹி போ³தி⁴ஸத்த்வாநாம் அத்³வயப்ரவேஸ²​: ||

  || தஸ்மிந் அக்ஷரவசநவிஜ்ஞப்திப்ரசாரோ நாஸ்தி ||

    || This is indeed the entrance into the non-duality (Advaya) of the Bodhisattvas. || 

                     || In that there is no use for syllables, sounds, and ideas  ||


 

Yet another lesson on Grantha Lipi. I ain’t gonna teach Advaya, so bear with my discourse on syllables & sounds 🙂

 

This wil be a short lesson. We’ll be seeing 2 new characters called Anusvāra & Visarga. They come under a class of characters called Ayogavāha [Previously, I mentioned them as Ubhayākshara-s. However, the correct grammatical term for them is this].

 

The Ayogavāha  ayogavaha_grantha class of characters do not exist independently, but rely on the vowel preceeding them (An Analogy would be the Saarbezhuththu of Tamil). The other two characters that come under Ayogavāha are Jihvāmūlīya & Upadhmānīya. [We will discuss them along with the consonants, for orthographic reasons]

 

As Ayogavāha are not independent, usually Anusvāra & Visarga are shown in combination with ‘a’. However, they can combine with all the vowel signs.

 

Also in this lesson we will also learn two additional orthographic devices called Avagraha & Candrabindu .

 

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namah_sarvanjnaya_grantha_corrected

Grantha – 1 – Vowels

namah_sarvanjnaya_grantha_corrected

| ॐ नमः सर्वज्ञाय । ஓம்ʼ  நம​: ஸர்வஜ்ஞாய |


Buddha_abhayaakaro-mukha-grantha

 

||कारो मुखः सर्वधर्माणां आद्यनुत्पन्नत्वात्  ||

|| காரோ முக²​: ஸர்வத⁴ர்மாணாம்ʼ ஆத்³யநுத்பந்நத்வாத் ||

|| ‘a‘ is the door to all Dharmas, for they are all originally unproduced  ||


Vijayadashami is usually a very special day to start, any related to Vidya. It is very auspicious to start Akshara Abhyasa [अक्षर अभ्यास அக்ஷர அப்⁴யாஸ akshara_abhyasa_grantha] at this day. Traditionally, Children are made to write the letter “அ अ“, and start their education. 

So, in this auspicious day of Vijayadashami, lets start our lessons on Grantha Lipi. 🙂

We’ll start our lesson with the Vowels a.k.a Svara-s. [ स्वरा: ஸ்வரா: – ஸ்வரங்கள் svarah-grantha]

Sanskrit has 14 Svara-s and 2 Ubhayākṣara-s [உப⁴யாக்ஷர उभयाक्षर ubhayakshara_grantha ] that go along with the Svara-s.

The 14 Svara-s in order are:

 a அ अ

a-grantha

 

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buddhanusmriti_grantha

Buddhanusmriti

buddhanusmriti_grantha

buddhānusmṛtiḥ बुद्धानुस्मृतिः பு³த்³தா⁴நுஸ்ம்ருʼதி:

5tb20mudra

 

namah_sarvabuddhabodhisattva_grantha

oṁ namaḥ sarvabuddhabodhisattvebhyaḥ 

 ॐ नमः सर्वबुद्धबोधिसत्त्वेभ्यः 

ஓம்ʼ  நம​: ஸர்வபு³த்³த⁴போ³தி⁴ஸத்த்வேப்⁴ய​: 

 

buddhanusmriti_1_grantha

ityapi buddho bhagavāṁstathāgato’rhan 

इत्यपि बुद्धो भगवांस्तथागतोऽर्हन्

இத்யபி பு³த்³தோ⁴ ப⁴க³வாம்ʼஸ்ததா²க³தோ(அ)ர்ஹந்

 

buddhanusmriti_2_grantha

samyaksaṁbuddho vidyācaraṇasampannaḥ

सम्यक्संबुद्धो विद्याचरणसम्पन्नः

ஸம்யக்ஸம்ʼபு³த்³தோ⁴ வித்³யாசரணஸம்பந்ந​:

 

buddhanusmriti_3_grantha

sugato lokavidanuttaraḥ puruṣadamyasārathiḥ

सुगतो लोकविदनुत्तरः पुरुषदम्यसारथिः

ஸுக³தோ லோகவித³நுத்தர​: புருஷத³ம்யஸாரதி²​:

 

buddhanusmriti_4_grantha

śāstā devamanuṣyāṇāṁ buddho bhagavāniti

शास्ता देवमनुष्याणां बुद्धो भगवानिति

ஸா²ஸ்தா தே³வமநுஷ்யாணாம்ʼ பு³த்³தோ⁴ ப⁴க³வாநிதி

 

dharma-wheel-

 

muni_svaha_grantha

oṁ mune mune mahāmunaye svāhā | ॐ मुने मुने महामुनये स्वाहा । ஓம் முநே முநே மஹாமுநயே ஸ்வாஹா