| ॐ नमो मुनीन्द्राय | ஓம்ʼ நமோ முநீந்த்³ராய |
राज्यभोगैश्च मे नार्थो न धान्येन धनेन वा
प्रसादो मम बुद्धेभ्यो भवेयं द्विपदोत्तमः
ராஜ்யபோ⁴கை³ஸ்²ச மே நார்தோ² ந தா⁴ந்யேந த⁴நேந வா
ப்ரஸாதோ³ மம பு³த்³தே⁴ப்⁴யோ ப⁴வேயம்ʼ த்³விபதோ³த்தம:
A king’s enjoyment is of no use to me, nor have I need of grain or wealth
Since in the Buddhas I have faith, may I become a Buddha
We have been seeing only simple Samyuktashara-s with only two consonants in the cluster. As expected, Conjuncts in Sanskrit can be more complex with 3 or even more consonants in the Cluster.
We’ll see how to represent such complex conjunct formation rules in Grantha script.
In the previous lesson, I had commented, ய் ̐ய य्ँय y̐y is an exception to the usual conjunct -y- rules. Usually, yya ய்ய் य्य is represented as . However, when Nasalized ya ய் ̐ य्ँ y̐ appears, the other /ya/ is stacked below.
During the last part, we had seen how -r- and -y- will take special forms, when they occur as a part of Samyuktakshara. So, how do we represent the Samyuktakshara- rya ர்ய र्य ?
To put it in Jargon – The pre-consonantal form of -r- takes priority rather than the post-consonantal form of -y- :-). (i.e) sūryaḥ ஸூர்ய: सूर्यः is written as
using the pre-consonantal form of -r-
For Complex Conjuncts with -rya- as an element like bhrya ப்⁴ர்ய भ्र्य the special signs are placed next to each other.
Complex -y- Conjunct
For Triple Cluster Samyuktaksharas with -y- as the final element, the first two consonants must be first clustered [either by Stacking or Combining] and then ya sign should be added.
(e.g) rkya ர்க்ய र्क्य, ntya ந்த்ய न्त्य, psya ப்ஸ்ய प्स्य
Complex Stacking Conjuncts
So far in the previous lessons, we had seen only stacking conjuncts with two consonants. In Grantha, another consonant can be added beneath, to form complex Samyuktaksharas. The Consonant Stack will have the first consonant in full width, and other two following consonants as minatures one below the other.
Triple Stacking is applied when all the three consonant do not have any combining forms with each other, and the only means of clustering the consonants is Stacking.
Consider spla ஸ்ப்ல स्प्ल, klva க்ல்வ क्ल्व – They are written as three level stacking.
When -r- & -y- occur as the second element in triple clusters., the miniature forms are used instead of their special conjunct signs. (e.g) grda க்³ர்த³ ग्र्द & kyva க்ய்வ क्य्व
Complex -r- Conjunct
For Stacking Conjuncts, the Miniature version of the samyuktakshara sign is placed when -r- occurs as the final consonant in a Triple cluster. (e.g) stra ஸ்த்ர स्त्र
For Combining Conjuncts, the regular post-consonantal -r- sign is applied as usual. (e.g) ndhra ந்த்⁴ர न्ध्र
When Triple clusters appear with pre-consonantal -r- occur – the final consonants barring -r- is clustered first and then the pre-consonantal -r- sign is applied. (e.g) rśca ர்ஸ்²ச र्श्च & rṅga ர்ங்க³ र्ङ्ग
Complex Combining Conjuncts
We had seen combing Conjuncts with only two consonants. Three consonants can also combine to give a single ligature.
They are usually only two such Samyuktaksharas in Grantha – ntva ந்த்வ न्त्व & ktva க்த்வ क्त्व
Thats all (atleast 😛 ) for now.
We’ll be seeing some more on Complex Conjunct formation in the next lesson.