Grantha – 3 – Consonants – Ka

namo_buddhaya_grantha

namo_buddhaya_grantha

| ॐ नमो बुद्धाय । ஓம்ʼ நமோ பு³த்³தா⁴ய |

 


bhumisparsha-buddha-plain-body-small

consonant_quote_grantha

|| ततः प्रवृत्तं मम धर्मचक्रं || தத​: ப்ரவ்ருʼத்தம்ʼ மம த⁴ர்மசக்ரம்ʼ ||

|| निर्वाणशब्दश्च अभूषि लोके || நிர்வாணஸ²ப்³த³ஸ்²ச அபூ⁴ஷி லோகே ||

|| Then rolled my Dharmachakra & the sound of Nirvaana was present in the world ||

 


 

In the previous lessons, we have learnt the various vowels, two of the Ayogavāha-s & orthographic items such as Avagraha and Chandrabindu.

 

Now, we must graduate to the Consonants :-).  In Sanskrit, Consonants are called as Vyañjana व्यञ्जन வ்யஞ்ஜந vyanjana_sanskrit.

The Vyanjana-s are divided into classes called Varga वर्ग வர்க³  varga_grantha. Each Varga ends with a Nasal i.e Anunāsika अनुनासिक அநுநாஸிக anunasika_grantha.

 

Sanskrit [and of course Prakrit] have separate symbols of Voiced, Aspirated and their various combinations thereof. The main difficulty for an eventual Tamil reader to pronounce Sanskrit [and/or Prakrit] would be pertaining to the pronunciation of Mahāprāṇa महाप्राण மஹாப்ராண mahaprana_grantha Consonants. They must be pronounced with Aspiration i.e with a puff of air [h]. Such as kha gha etc.

 

On the other hand those consonants without this aspiration are known as Alpraprāṇa अल्पप्राण அல்பப்ராண alpaprana_grantha

 

We would be seeing a single Varga of the Vyanjanas and one Ayogavaha, the Jihvāmūlīya (along with it the associated Ardha-Visarga symbol)  in this lesson. 

 

ka-varga

First will be the ka-varga . They come under Kaṇṭhya कण्ठ्य கண்ட்²ய kanthya_grantha, meaning those produced in the throat [Technically, the consonants are produced at the back of tongue. Probably, Throat is an approximation for that position]

 

 ka க क

ka_grantha

 

 kha க² ख

 kha_grantha

 

 ga க³ ग 

ga_grantha

 

 gha க⁴ घ

gha_grantha

 

 ṅa ங ङ

nga_grantha


The pronunciation of the letters are the same as indicated by Roman/Devanagari counterparts. So, I don’t intend to comment more on their pronunciation. But as said earlier, the pronunciation of the Mahaprana consonants kha & gha must be given extra care 🙂

 

Jihvāmūlīya

Jihvāmūlīya जिह्वामूलीया ஜிஹ்வாமூலீயா jihvamuliya_grantha, literally meaning the “Back of the tongue” is another peculiar sound pertaining to Sanskrit alone. It does not have any separate letter form. It is indicated by a symbol called Ardha-Visarga अर्ध विसर्ग அர்த⁴ விஸர்க³ ardhavisarga_grantha. [Do note that at a different position, the Ardha Visarga represents another ayogavāha namely the Upadhmānīya. Ardha Visarga visually represents both these sounds]

 

Ardha Visarga

ardha_visarga_grantha

 

Jihvāmūlīya is formed, when Visarga appears before ka ka_grantha and kha kha_grantha. The Visarga transforms into a Jihvāmūlīya at this position. It is shown by the symbol Ardha-Visarga before these two letters.

 

jihva_muliya_grantha

 

The Ardha-Visarga symbol that appears before ka ka_grantha and kha kha_grantha, is prononced as Jihvāmūlīya.

 

In phonetics, it termed as “Voiceless Velar Fricative”. The sound sample can be heard here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Voiceless_velar_fricative.ogg

 

Letters similar to that in Tamil


ka_tamil_grantha

 

Similar Letters

Grantha /a/ & /ka/ have similar forms. But closely note the minute differences between the two letters.

 

a_ka_grantha_corrected

 

Also, /i/ and /ṅa ங ङ/ are very much similar.  /ṅa ங ङ/ has a short vertical line at the base, which /i/ lacks

 

i_nga_grantha

 

The third lesson in this series, ends with this. 

 

In the next lesson, we will see two Vargas namely, च ச ca-varga & ट ட ṭa-varga.

 

Download this Lesson as PDF


dharamo_rakshati_corrected_grantha


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *